Newsgroups: alt.atari-jaguar.discussion,,alt.answers,news.answers,rec.answers
     Summary: FAQs about the Atari Jaguar video game system
     Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.Edu

     Archive-name: games/video-games/atari/jaguar
     Posting-Frequency: monthly

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       Created by Robert Jung (, because no one else wanted to.
           Dedicated to ASTEROIDS, for getting me hooked in the first place

     Last update: 10/1/2000


     This file is not maintained by, overseen by, endorsed, or otherwise
     associated with Atari Corp., JTS, or any of its subsidiaries.  It's just a
     collection of questions and answers, with a few news tidbits thrown in.

     This file is posted on a monthly basis to,
     alt.atari-jaguar.discussion, news.answers, and rec.answers around the first
     of the month.  The latest version of this file is also available on the
     world- wide web at  It is
     maintained by Robert Jung at on the Internet.  Send
     corrections, news, updates, comments, questions, or other stuff to that
     address.  All mail is welcome!

     Updates since the last publicly posted FAQ have a percent sign (%) in the
     first column.

     Robert tries to get the latest news and information into this FAQ; however,
     he's only human, and might miss something important due to real-life demands.
     Feel free to send in news tidbits and announcements to for
     inclusion in this FAQ.

     Q. What was the Atari Jaguar/Jaguar64?
     A. The Atari Jaguar was the world's first 64-bit home console video game
        system.  Developed after three years of research, manufactured by IBM, the
        Jaguar was released in Fall 1993, and offered high-speed action,
        CD-quality sound, and polygon graphics processing beyond most other
        machines available at the time.

        Orignally released as the Jaguar, Atari had, at times, referred to the
        machine as the "Jaguar64" for marketing purposes.  For the sake of
        simplicity in this document, the term "Jaguar" will be used.

     Q. What was included when you bought a Jaguar?
     A. The Jaguar was first sold for $250.  It came with the Jaguar itself, one
        controller, an AC adapter, a television RF switch box, and the CYBERMORPH
        video game.  Later on, the Jaguar was sold without a game, and as time
        progressed, the Jaguar was sold for $150, then $99.

     Q. What happened to Atari, anyway?
     A. The trials and tribulations of Atari could fill a small book (and, in
        fact, once did).  To summarize VERY briefly, the history of Atari is as
          1972   Atari Inc. founded by Nolan Bushnell from a $250 investment.
                   Pong arcade game becomes a smash sensation.
          1976   Atari Inc. sold by Bushnell to Warner Inc. for $28 million.
          1980   Atari Inc. posts record sales.  $2 billion profits annually.
                   Atari occupies 80 offices in Sunnyvale, CA.
          1983   Decline of video games and irresponsible spending by Atari Inc.
                   results in record losses ($536 million, up to $2 million
          1984   Warner divides Atari Inc.  Home division (Atari Corp.) is sold to
                   Jack Tramiel.
          1985   Atari Corp. releases Atari ST home computer.
          1989   Atari Corp. releases Atari Lynx, the world's first color
                   hand-held video game system (see the Atari Lynx FAQ).
          1993   Atari Games becomes Time-Warner Interactive.
          1993   Atari Corp. releases Atari Jaguar, the world's first 64-bit home
                   video game system.
          1996   Time-Warner Interactive (Atari Games) sold to WMS.
          1996   Atari Corp. announces reverse merger with JTS Corporation.
          1996   Atari Corp. and JTS connsumate deal on July 31 1996.
          1998   Hasbro acquires the rights to Atari Corp.'s name and properties
          1999   Hasbro releases their rights to the Jaguar to the public; Atari
                   is reborn as their new home video game label.

     Q. What was IBM's role in the Jaguar?
     A. IBM had a $500 million contract with Atari Corp. to assemble, test,
        package, and distribute Jaguar units.  Manufacturing was done at IBM's
        Charlotte, NC facility, and the Jaguar was IBM's first attempt at
        producing a consumer-grade product for an outside vendor.  By mid-1994,
        Jaguar units were also manufactured by Comptronix in Colorado Springs.
        Jaguar circuit boards were manufactured and assembled by an IBM
        subcontractor; IBM then cased, tested, and packaged final Jaguar units,
        which were then sent to Atari.  IBM had no participation in the actual
        design of the Jaguar chipset.


     Q. Okay, who did design the Jaguar?

     A. The primary designers of the Jaguar were Martin Brennan and John
        Mathieson.  They started their own company in 1986 called Flare 1, and
        designed an original multiprocessor game console.  After the system was
        finished, Flare wanted to "evolve" the system, but needed funding for the
        job.  Atari was contacted, believed in the idea, and agreed to
        participate.  Atari, Brennan, and Mathieson started a new company called
        Flare 2 to develop the system. As Jaguar development moved along, it
        became apparent that the machine would leapfrog the then-new systems from
        Nintendo and Sega (the Super Nintendo and Sega Genesis, respectively), so
        they decided to bring the machine to light.  The entire process took three
        years, from initial design to production-ready models.

        The proprietary Jaguar chipsets were manufactured by Toshiba and Motorola.
        According to Chris Gibbs, Attention To Detail was asked to write
        technology demos for the Jaguar chipset.  The company opted to develop a
        game instead, resulting in the first Jaguar title, CYBERMORPH.

        The Flare design was was reportedly based on a project called "Loki,"
        developed by Sinclair Research.  Information about the Loki project can
        be found at

        According to Jaguar developer Andrew Whittaker, "Some of that [Loki]
        technology also found a home in a machine called the SAM Coupe, which was
        manufactured and produced in the UK by MGT technologies (Bruce Gordon and
        Alan Miles, both ex-Sinclair staff also).  It shared many interesting
        features with the Jaguar in terms of its video chip, but the machine sold
        very badly in Europe and the company folded."


     Q. What are the specifications of the Jaguar?

     A. Physical dimensions:

            Size: 9.5" x 10" x 2.5"
        Controls: Power on/off
         Display: Programmable screen resolution.  Horizontal resolution is
                    dependent on the amount of scanline buffer space given to the
                    "Tom" graphics processor.  Maximum vertical resolution varies
                    according to the refresh rate (NTSC or PAL).  Reportedly, a
                    stock Jaguar (without additional memory) running NTSC can
                    display up to 576 rows of pixels.
                  24-bit "True Color" display with 16,777,216 colors
                    simultaneously (additional 8 bits of supplimental graphics
                    data support possible)
                  Multiple-resolution, multiple-color depth objects (monochrome,
                    2-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit) can be used
           Ports: Cartridge slot/expansion port (32 bits)
                  RF video output
                  Video edge connector (video/audio output)
                    (supports NTSC and PAL; provides S-Video, Composite, RGB
                    outputs, accessible by optional add-on connector)
                  Two controller ports
                  Digital Signal Processor port (includes high-speed synchronous
                    serial input/output)
     Controllers: Eight-directional joypad
                  Size 6.25" x 5" x 1.6", cord 7 feet
                  Three fire buttons (A, B, C)
                  Pause and Option buttons
                  12-key keypad (accepts game-specific overlays)

       The Jaguar has five processors which are contained in three chips.  Two of
       the chips are proprietary designs, nicknamed "Tom" and "Jerry".  The third
       chip is a standard Motorola 68000, and used as a coprocessor.  Tom and
       Jerry are built using an 0.5 micron silicon process.  With proper
       programming, all five processors can run in parallel.

       - "Tom"
         - 750,000 transistors, 208 pins
         - Graphics Processing Unit (processor #1)
           - 32-bit RISC architecture (32/64 processor)
             - 64 registers of 32 bits wide
             - Has access to all 64 bits of the system bus
             - Can read 64 bits of data in one instruction
           - Rated at 26.591 MIPS (million instructions per second)
           - Runs at 26.591 MHz
           - 4K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM
           - Performs a wide range of high-speed graphic effects
           - Programmable
         - Object processor (processor #2)
           - 64-bit RISC architecture
           - 64-bit wide registers
           - Programmable processor that can act as a variety of different video
             architectures, such as a sprite engine, a pixel-mapped display, a
             character-mapped system, and others.
         - Blitter (processor #3)
           - 64-bit RISC architecture
           - 64-bit wide registers
           - Performs high-speed logical operations
           - Hardware support for Z-buffering and Gouraud shading
         - DRAM memory controller
           - 64 bits
           - Accesses the DRAM directly

       - "Jerry"
         - 600,000 transistors, 144 pins
         - Digital Signal Processor (processor #4)
           - 32 bits (32-bit registers)
           - Rated at 26.6 MIPS (million instructions per second)
           - Runs at 26.6 MHz
           - Same RISC core as the Graphics Processing Unit
             - Not limited to sound generation
           - 8K bytes of zero wait-state internal SRAM
           - CD-quality sound (16-bit stereo)
             - Number of sound channels limited by software
             - Two DACs (stereo) convert digital data to analog sound signals
           - Full stereo capabilities
           - Wavetable synthesis, FM synthesis, FM Sample synthesis, and AM
         - A clock control block, incorporating timers, and a UART
         - Joystick control

       - Motorola 68000 (processor #5)
         - Runs at 13.295MHz
         - General purpose control processor

        Communication is performed with a high speed 64-bit data bus, rated at
        106.364 megabytes/second.  The 68000 is only able to access 16 bits of
        this bus at a time.

        The Jaguar contains two megabytes (16 megabits) of fast page-mode DRAM,
        in four chips with 512 K each.  Game cartridges can support up to six
        megabytes (48 megabits) of information, and can contain an EEPROM
        (electrically erasable/programmable read-only memory) chip to save game
        information and settings.  Up to 100,000 writes can be performed with the
        EEPROM; after that, future writes may not be saved (performance varies
        widely, but 100,000 is a guaranteed minimum).  Depending on use, this
        limit should take from 10 to 50 years to reach.

        The Jaguar uses 24-bit addressing, and is reportedly capable of accessing
        data as follows:

                Six megabytes cartridge ROM
                Eight megabytes DRAM
                Two megabytes miscellaneous/expansion

        All of the processors can access the main DRAM memory area directly.  The
        Digital Signal Processor and the Graphics Processor can execute code out
        of either their internal caches, or out of main memory.  The only
        limitations are that

        (1) "jump" instructions in main memory have certain restrictions; the JMP
              (unconditional jump) command is longword-aligned, while the JR
              (jump-indexed-by-register) command must be either word- or longword-
              aligned.  And
        (2) running out of the cache is much faster (up to four times faster) and

        Some believe that the inability to jump/branch in main memory makes the
        main memory feature useless.

        Swapping data between the caches and the main memory is a quick, low
        overhead operation, and therefore the main memory is often used as "swap
        space" for cache code.  The RISC compiler included in the latest Jaguar
        developer's kit produced code that transparently swaps code through the
        cache.  This effectively allowed developers write RISC code without
        concern for the cache size limits.

        Compressed cartridge data can be uncompressed in real-time, and ratios of
        up to 14:1 have been cited.  In theory, a Jaguar cartridge can store up to
        84 megabytes (672 megabits) of data, though actual results will vary
        widely (most often, images are compressed, while sound and code are not).
        Compression is performed with BPEG, an enhanced JPEG image decompression
        mechanism.  BPEG supercedes the former JagPEG algorithm, working up to 10
        times faster and with more flexibility.

        Other Jaguar features:
        - Support for ComLynx I/O for communications with the Atari Lynx hand-held
            game system and networked multiconsole games (on DSP port, accessible
            by optional add-on connector).  Networking of up to 32 Jaguar units
        - The two controller ports can be expanded to support "dozens" of
          - Digital and analog interfaces
          - Keyboards, mice, and light guns are possible
        - Expansion port allows connection to cable TV and other networks
        - Digital Signal Processor port allows connection to modems and digital
          audio peripherals (such as DAT players)
        - One megabyte per second serial interface
        - 9600 baud, RS-232 serial port (accessible with optional interface)
        - General-purpose I/O bits via the cartridge port
        - Can accomodate future expansions of different processor types, I/O
            types, video types, and memory types and/or quantities.

     Q. Was the Jaguar really a 64-bit system?
     A. The question is hard to resolve, largely because the definition of what
        constitutes an "N-bit" system has not been set.  Of the five processors in
        the Jaguar, only the object processor and the blitter are "true" 64-bit
        components.  Because the blitter and the object processor are in the Tom
        chip, by extension Tom is a 64-bit chip.  Furthermore, the Jaguar also
        used a 64-bit memory architecture, according to Jez San of Argonaut

        Some say the Jaguar should be considered a 32-bit system, as that is the
        maximum register size in the programmable processors (the 68000, the
        graphics processor, and the DMA sound processor).  Others say the Jaguar
        can be considered a 64-bit system, because 64-bit components are used, and
        the GPU can access 64 bits of data if required.  Again, the lack of an
        agreed-upon definition serves to complicate the issue.

        According to Jaguar designer John Mathieson, "Jaguar has a 64-bit memory
        interface to get a high bandwidth out of cheap DRAM. ... Where the system
        needs to be 64 bit then it is 64 bit, so the Object Processor, which takes
        data from DRAM and builds the display is 64 bit; and the blitter, which
        does all the 3D rendering, screen clearing, and pixel shuffling, is 64
        bit.  Where the system does not need to be 64 bit, it isn't.  There is no
        point in a 64 bit address space in a games console!  3D calculations and
        audio processing do not generally use 64-bit numbers, so there would be no
        advantage to 64 bit processors for this.

        "Jaguar has the data shifting power of a 64 bit system, which is what
        matters for games, so can reasonably be considered a 64 bit system.  But
        that doesn't mean it has to be 64 bits throughout."

        For the record, the opinion of most third party developers and observers
        is that the Jaguar is indeed a 64-bit system.  The emphasis is on the word
        "system"; while not every component is 64 bits, the Jaguar architecture,
        as a COMPLETE SYSTEM, is.

     Q. The Jaguar used a 68000.  Isn't that the CPU?
     A. Again, quoting from Jaguar designer John Mathieson, "It may be the CPU in
        the sense that it's the centre of operation, and boot-straps the machine,
        and starts everything else going; however, it is not the centre of
        Jaguar's power. ... The 68000 is like a manager who does no real work, but
        tells everybody else what to do."


        "Atari were keen to use a 68K family device, and we looked closely at
        various members.  We did actually build a couple of 68030 versions of the
        early beta developers systems, and for a while were going to use a 68020.
        However, this turned out too expensive.  We also considered the
        possibility of no [Motorola 680x0 chip] at all.  I always felt it was
        important to have some normal processor, to give developers a warm feeling
        when they start.  The 68K is inexpensive and does that job well.  I
        maintain that it's only there to read the joysticks."

        In rebuttal, Jaguar developer Andrew Whittaker notes, "In practice, what
        many of us did with our titles was use the 68000 for AI and gameplay
        logic, and have the custom chips drive the rendering to screen and 3D

     Q. How could a graphics processor be the CPU?
     A. The 64-bit custom graphics chip was a good general purpose RISC unit, but
        it had been optimized for graphics work.  Developers were free to specify
        which processor(s) to use in a program, as desired.

     Q. What kind of special effects could the Jaguar do?
     A. The Jaguar was capable of doing the following visual effects:
        - High-speed scrolling (Object Processor).
        - Texture mapping on two- and three-dimensional objects (GPU and Blitter).
        - Morphing one object into another object (GPU).
        - Scaling, rotation, distortion, and skewing of sprites and images
            (Object Processor).
        - Lighting and shading from single and multiple light sources (GPU and
        - Transparency (Object Processor).
        - "Rendering" up to 850 million one-bit pixels/second (35 million 24-bit
            pixels/second, 26 million 32-bit pixels/second), or 50 million Goroud
            shaded pixels/second.  "Rendering" is believed to mean transferring a
            pixel from a frame buffer to the screen.
        - Sprites of "unlimited" size and quantity.  Realistically, sprites can be
            over 1,000 pixels wide/tall, and the number of sprites allowed is
            limited by processor cycles instead of a fixed value in hardware
            (Object processor).
        - Programmable screen resolutions, from 160 to 800 pixels per line.  The
            resolution can be increased even further with additional hardware up
            to a reported 1350 pixels per line.

        One of the Jaguar modes is called "CRY mode", which supports lighting and
        effects in 3D graphics.  Red, green, and blue color elements are ranged
        from 0 to 255, and the lighting level for any pixel can be changed by
        setting one byte linearly.  E.g., the relative proportions of red, blue,
        and green are indicated with one byte, while a second byte selects an
        overall intensity of 0 to 255.  CRY allows much smoother shading of single
        colors, but doesn't allow blending between colors as smoothly.

        Actual graphics performance is hard to measure, as there are no industry-
        standard benchmarks.  Rebellion Software has claimed that the Jaguar can
        render "10,000 Gourard shaded, large, 65536 color, any shape polygons per
        second," while still performing other tasks.  Presumably this level can
        be increased further with optimized programming; indeed, some unofficial
        calculations speculate that FIGHT FOR LIFE may generate between 20,000 to
        40,000 texture-mapped polygons per second.

        A key to understanding the Jaguar's performance is to realize that most
        effects are accomplished by programming one of the processors to do the
        job.  To perform texture-mapping, for instance, required a developer to
        write a texture-mapping routine for the GPU and/or blitter, then call it
        as needed.  The general-purpose nature of the Jaguar architecture gave
        developers a lot of flexibility; unfortunately, the drawback was that
        software routines for such effects are invariably slower and less
        efficient than dedicated hardware chips and components.

     Q. How come the Jaguar claims to have "32-bit" graphics, when only 24 bits
        are needed to render 16 million colors?
     A. The additional 8-bits was for programmers to implement whatever visual
        effects might be desired.  Examples cited include Z-buffering (for polygon
        graphics) and an alpha channel (for transparency).

     Q. Who were the third-party publishers/developers for the Jaguar?
     A. The following companies have, at one time or another, been announced as
        official developers, licensees, or publishers for the Jaguar.  Note that
        an official announcement was not an obligation for a company to produce
        Jaguar-related products; many times, it merely meant that the company made
        a commitment to "consider" producing product(s) for Atari.

          Attention to Detail (ATD)                       Imagitech Design
          Llamasoft                Rebellion              Handmade Software
          Anco Software Ltd.       Maxis Software         Telegames
          Beyond Games Inc.        Microids               Tiertex Ltd.
          Dimension Technologies   Midnite Software Inc.  Titus Eurosoft
          Ocean Software Ltd.      Tradewest              High Voltage Software
          Rebellion Software       Trimark Interactive    Krisalis Software Ltd.
          Virtual Experience       U.S. Gold Ltd.         Loriciel U.S.A.
          Silmarils                Millenium              Park Place Productions
          Ubi Soft                 Gremlin Software       Microprose/S. Holobyte
          Accolade                 Virgin                 Interplay
          21st Century Software    Activision             Id Software
          Twilight                 Brainstorm             3D Games
          All Systems Go           Argonaut Software      Euro-Soft
          ICD Incorporated         Photosurrealism        DTMC
          Epic Megagames           V-Reel Productions     Sunsoft
          Domark Group Ltd.        Elite                  Br0derbund
          Williams (Midway/Williams)                      Rage Software
          Readysoft                Spacetec               Visual Concepts
          Bullfrog Productions     Imagineer              Jaleco
          Sculptured Software      Williams Brothers      Accent Media Productions
          Anthill Industries       Audio/Visual Magic     Bethesda Softworks
          Black Scorpion Software  Visual Sciences Ltd.   Steinberg Soft-und Hdw
          Borta & Associates       Clearwater Software    Computer Music Cslt.
          Cybervision              CyberWare              Delta Music Systems Inc.
          Pixel Satori             Elite                  E-On
          EZ Score Software Inc.   GameTek Inc.           Genus Microprogramming
          H2O Design Corp.         HiSoft                 Limelight Media Inc.
          Manley & Associates      NMS Software Ltd.      PIXIS Interactive
          Rest Easy                Software Creations     Team Infinity
          Team 17 Software Ltd.    Techtonics             Technation Digital World
          Teque London Ltd.        Thrustmaster           American Laser Masters
          Tengen                   Eclipse                Zeppelin Games
          Time/Warner Interactive  Acid Software          20th Century Fox Int.
          Alfaro Corporation Ltd.  B.S.A.                 Bando Svenska AB
          Beris                    Bitmotion Software     Bizzare Computing
          Brandlewood Computers Ltd.                      Cannonball Software
          Celebrity Systems Inc.   Condor Software        Cross Products Ltd.
          DAP Developments         Data Design            Denton Designs Ltd.
          Diskimage                Electro Brain Corp.    Electrom
          Extreme                  Factor 5               Flair Software Ltd.
          Frankenstein Software    Funcom Productions     Human Soft Ltd.
          JVC Musical Industries Inc.                     Kungariket Multimedia
          Lost in Time Software    Malibu Interactive     Michton Inc.
          Media Technology Scandinavia                    Merit Industries Inc.
          Miracle Designs          Nebulous Games         Neon-Buttner
          i-SPACE                  Network 23 Software    NMS Software Ltd.
          Odyssey Software Inc.    Orion Technologies     Phobyx
          Rage Software Ltd.       Rainmaker Software     Riedel Software Prod.
          Scangames Interactive    Wave Quest Inc.        4Play
          Selgus Limited           Shadowsoft Inc.        Sigma Designs
          Sinister Development     Soft Enterprises       Softgold Gmbh
          Software 2000            Software Development Systems
          Tantalus Entertainment   Hyper Image            Virtual Artistry, Inc.
          Springer Spaniel         Core Design            Acclaim
          Electronic Arts          Level Seven            iThink, Inc.
          Arcade Zone              JV Enterprises         Fatal Design
          Moving Target Software Design                   Visual Dimensions 3D
          OMC Games                Dark Knight Games      Songbird Productions

        Also, Time-Warner Interactive had licensed the Jaguar architecture for
        use in arcade games.  The modified systems were referred to as "CoJag"
        architectures, with more memory, additional storage, and other
        additions.  More information can be found elsewhere in this FAQ.

     Q. What were all of the Jaguar games released?
     A. Jaguar cartridge games:

        Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
        Air Cars             1-8    ICD            Midnite Sw.    Action/Driving
        Alien vs. Predator    1     Atari          Atari/         Action/Adventure
        Atari Karts          1-2    Atari          Miracle        Sports
        Attack of the Mutant 1-2    Atari          Sunrise        Puzzle/Strategy
        Battlesphere         1-8    Scatologic     4Play          Action/Shooter
        Breakout 2000        1-2    Telegames      Atari          Action
        Brutal Sports        1-2    Telegames      Millenium/     Sports
          Football                                   Teque
        Bubsy in Fractured   1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Platform
          Furry Tales
        Cannon Fodder         1     Computer West  Virgin         Action
        Checkered Flag        1     Atari          Rebellion      Sports
        Club Drive           1-2    Atari          Atari          Action/Simulator
        Crescent Galaxy       1     Atari          Atari          Shooter
        Cybermorph            1     Atari          ATD            Action/Strategy
        Defender 2000        1-2    Atari          Llamasoft      Action/Arcade
        Doom                 1-2(1) Atari          id Software    Action/Adventure
        Double Dragon V:     1-2    Williams       Williams       Action/Fighting
          The Shadow Falls
        Dragon               1-2    Atari          Virgin         Action/Fighting
        Evolution:Dino Dudes  1     Atari          Imagitec       Puzzle/Strategy
        Fever Pitch Soccer   1-2    Atari          Atari          Sports
        Fight For Life       1-2    Atari          Atari          Action/Fighting
        Flashback             1     Tiertex Ltd.   U.S. Gold      Action/Adventure
        Flip Out              1     Atari          Gorilla Sys.   Action/Puzzle
        Hover Strike         1-2(2) Atari          Atari          Action/Shooter
        Hyper Force           1     Songbird Prod. Visual Impact  Action/Fighting
        I-war                1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Action/Shooter
        International        1-2    Telegames      Williams Br.   Sports
          Sensible Soccer
        Iron Soldier          1     Atari          Eclipse        Action/Simulator
        Iron Soldier 2        1     Telegames      Eclipse        Action/Shooter
          Limited Ed.
        Kasumi Ninja         1-2    Atari          Handmade Sw.   Action/Fighting
        Missile Command 3D    1     Atari          Atari          Action/Arcade
        NBA Jam Tournament   1-4(4) Atari          High Voltage   Arcade
        Pinball Fantasies    1-8(3) Computer West  Spidersoft     Action
        Pitfall: The Mayan    1     Activision     Imagitec       Action
        Power Drive Rally    1-8(3) Time-Warner    Rage           Action/Driving
        Protector            1-2    Songbird Prod. Bethesda Sw.   Arcade/Action
        Raiden               1-2    Atari          Imagitec       Arcade
        Rayman                1     Ubi Soft Int.  UBI Soft Int.  Action/Platform
        Ruiner               1-4(3) Atari          High Voltage   Action/Pinball
        Skyhammer             1     Songbird Prod. Rebellion      Flight/Simulator
        Soccer Kid            1     Songbird Prod. Krisalis       Platform
        Super Burnout        1-2    Atari          Shen           Action/Sports
        Supercross 3D        1-2    Atari          Tiertex        Sports
        Syndicate             1     Ocean          Bullfrog       Strategy
        Tempest 2000         1-2    Atari          Llamasoft      Action/Arcade
        Theme Park            1     Ocean          Bullfrog       Simulation
        Towers II             1     Telegames      JV Enterprises Adventure
        Troy Aikman NFL      1-2    Williams       Telegames      Sports
        Ultra Vortek         1-2    Atari          Beyond Games   Action/Fighting
        Val D'Isere Skiing   1-2    Atari          Virtual Studio Sports
          and Snowboarding
        White Men Can't      1-4(4) Atari          High Voltage   Sports
          Jump (w/Team Tap)
        Wolfenstein 3D        1     Atari          id Software    Action/Adventure
        Worms                1-16   Telegames      Team 17        Action/Strategy
        Zero 5                1     Telegames      Caspian Sw.    Action/Shooter
        Zool 2               1-2    Atari          Gremlin        Platform
        Zoop                  1     Atari          Viacom         Action/Puzzle

        Jaguar CD-ROM games:

        Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
        Baldies               1     Atari          Creative Edge  Puzzle/Strategy
        Battlemorph           1     Atari          ATD            Action/Strategy
        Blue Lightning        1     Atari          ATD            Action
        Brain Dead 13         1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Action
        Dragon's Lair         1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Arcade
        Highlander            1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
        Hover Strike:        1-2(2) Atari          Atari          Action/Shooter
          Unconquered Lands
        Iron Soldier 2        1     Telegames      Eclipse        Action/Shooter
        Myst                  1     Atari          Atari          Adventure
        Primal Rage          1-2    Time-Warner    Probe          Arcade
        Space Ace             1     ReadySoft      ReadySoft      Arcade
        Vid Grid             1-8(3) Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
        World Tour Racing    1-2    Telegames      Teque          Sports

        (1) Multiplayer games supported by connecting multiple Jaguars together.
        (2) Cooperative play only.
        (3) Players alternate turns with one controller.
        (4) Three and four players can play simultaneously with the Jaguar Team
              Tap peripheral.

     Q. What were the unreleased Jaguar games?
     A: The following games were announced at one time or another as being planned
        for the Jaguar.  With the dissolution of Atari, the chances are very slim
        that any of these games will ever be produced or released.  However, a few
        enterprising companies and individuals have considered plans to either
        finish their Jaguar titles for release, to sell finished-but-unreleased
        games, or to produce new games on their own.

        Screenshots of some unreleased Jaguar games can be found at

        Announced Jaguar cartridge games (? = Uncertain entry):

        Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
        Allegiance           1-2?     ?            Team 17        Action/Strategy
        Al Michaels          1-2    Accolade/Atari Atari          Sports
          Announces Hardball
        Arena Football       1-8    Atari          V-Reel Prod.   Sports
        Assault: Covert Ops  1-2?   Midnite Sw     Midnite Sw     Action
        Automaniacs          1-2    Visual Dim.    Visual Dim.    Action/Driving
        Batman Forever       1-2?   Atari          Atari          Action
        Battlewheels 2025    1-2    Beyond Games   Beyond Games   Action
        Bong+ 1999           1-2?     ?            Just Claws     Action
        Brett Hull Hockey    1-2    Atari          Ringler        Sports
        Casino Royale        1-2?   Telegames      Telegames      Strategy
        Center Court Tennis  1-2    Zeppelin         ?            Sports
        Charles Barkley      1-4?     ?            Ringler        Sports
        'Dactyl Joust         1?    Atari          High Voltage   Action/Arcade?
        Deathwatch           1-2    Atari          Data Design    Action
        Demolition Man        1?    Atari          Virgin         Action/Shooting
        Dino Dudes 2          1     Atari          Imagitec       Puzzle/Strategy
        Dune Racer           1-2    Atari            ?            Action/Driving
        Dungeon Depths        1     Midnite Sw     Midnite Sw     Adventure
        Droppings             1?    Delta Music      ?              ?
        European Soccer      1-2    Telegames      Telegames      Sports
        Frank Thomas "Big    1-2    Atari          Acclaim        Sports
          Hurt" Baseball
        Galactic Gladiators  1-2      ?            Photosur.      Action/Strategy
        Gorf 2000            1-2?     ?            Krunch Corp.   Arcade
        Gotcha!               1?      ?              ?              ?
        Graham Gooch's World 1-2?   Telegames      Telegames      Sports
          Class Cricket
        Indiana Jags          1       ?            Virtual Exp.   Action/Platform
        Iratan Supremecy     1-2      ?            Level Seven    Action/Fighting
        Iron Man/XO-Manowar  1-2    Atari          Acclaim        Action?
        James Pond 3          1     Telegames      Telegames      Platform
        Jagmania              1       ?            Matthias Domin Action
        Jagmarble             1       ?            Matthias Domin Action
        Jagtris               1       ?            Bastian Schick Action/Puzzle
        Kick Off 3           1-2      ?            Anco Software  Sports
        Legion Force Jidai    1?      ?            FORCE Design   Action/Arcade
        Legions of the        1?    Atari          Rebellion      Action/Adventure
        Lester the Unlikely   1     DTMC           DTMC           Action/Strategy
        Max Force             1?      ?              ?            Action/Shooter
        Mountain Sports      1-2    DTMC           DTMC           Action/Sports
        Nanoterror            1?      ?            Delta Music      ?
        Native                1?      ?            Duranik Sw.    Action/Shooter
        Nerves of Steel       1?      ?            Rainmaker      Action/Adventure
        Painter               1?      ?            Sinister         ?
        Phase Zero           1-8    Atari          Hyper Image    Action
        Phear                1-2    Atari          H2O Design     Puzzle
        Powerdrive            1?    Telegames      Elite          Action/Driving
        Rainbow Warrior       1?      ?            3D Games       Action?
        Return of Magic       1?      ?            Virtual Art.   Adventure?
        Rise of the Robots    1     Time-Warner    Williams Br.   Action/Adventure
        Robotron:2084        1-2    Atari            ?            Action/Arcade
        Rollcage             1-2?     ?            Team 17        Sports/Driving
        Space War 2000       1-2    Atari            ?            Action
        Star Raiders 2000     1?    Atari            ?            Action
        Sudden Impact        1-2?     ?              ?            Action
        Super Off-Road       1-2    Telegames        ?            Arcade/Driving
        T-Mek                1-2?   Time-Warner      ?            Arcade
        The Assassin          1     OMC Games      OMC Games      Adventure
        Thunderstalker        1?    Telegames      Telegames        ?
        Ultimate Brain Games 1-2?   Telegames        ?            Puzzle
        Virtuoso              1?    Telegames      Williams Br.   Action
        Virtual Warriors     1-2      ?            Rainmaker      Action/Fighting
        Waterworld            1?    Ocean          Ocean            ?
        Wild Cup Soccer      1-2?   Telegames        ?            Action/Sports
        Witchwood            1-2    Atari          Team 17        Action
        World Cup            1-2?     ?            Anco Software  Sports
        Zzyorxx II            1?      ?            Virtual Exp.   Action/Shooter

        Announced Jaguar CD-ROM games:

        Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
        Age of Darkness       1       ?            OMC Games      Action/Adventure
        Artemis               1?    Springer Sp.   Springer Sp.   Adventure
        Black Ice/            1?    Atari            ?            Adventure
          White Noise
        Brett Hull Hockey    1-2    Atari          Ringler        Sports
        Circle of Four        1       ?            JV Enterprises Adventure
        Commander Blood       1?    Atari            ?            Adventure
        Commando              1     Atari          Microids       Action/Strategy
        Country Grid         1-8    Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
        Creature Shock        1     Virgin         Argonaut Sw.   Action/Adventure
        Dante's Inferno       1     Atari          Gorilla Sys.   Adventure
        Defcon 1              1     Dark Knight    Dk Kngt/Vis.D  Action/Adventure
        Demolition Man        1     Atari          Virgin         Action
        Deus ex Machina       1       ?            Silmarils      Adventure
        Evidence              1       ?            Microids       Action/Adventure
        FIFA International   1-2      ?            Elec. Arts     Sports
        Freelancer 2120       1     Atari          Imagitec       Action/Adventure
        Highlander II         1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
        Highlander III        1     Atari          Lore Design    Action/Adventure
        Horrorscope           1?      ?            V-Reel Prod.   Action/Fighting
        Ishar Genesis         1     Atari          Silmaris       Adventure
        Kid Grid             1-8    Atari          High Voltage   Puzzle
        Litil Devil           1       ?            Gremlin Int.   Adventure?
        Lobo                  1?      ?            Ocean          Action?
        Magic Carpet          1     Atari          Bullfrog       Action/Arcade
        Max Force             1     Atari          Genus          Action
        Mind-Ripper           1?    Atari            ?            Strategy?
        Mortal Kombat III    1-2    Atari          Williams       Arcade/Fighting
        Need For Speed, The   1       ?            Elec. Arts     Driving
        Neurodancer           1?      ?            PIXIS Int.     Adventure?
        Orb of Bangzai        1       ?            OMC Games      Action/Adventure
        Powerslide            1     Telegames      Williams Br.   Driving
        Return Fire          1-2      ?            Alexandria     Action/Strategy
        Return to Zork        1       ?            Activision     Adventure
        Robinson's Requiem    1?    Atari          Silmarils      Adventure
        Rocky Horror          1     Atari?           ?            Adventure
        Scottish Open        1-2?     ?            Core Design    Sports
          Virtual Golf
        Sinister Missions    1-2      ?            OMC Games      Action/Shooter
        Soul Star             1     Atari          Core Design    Action/Shooter
        Starlight            1-2      ?            V-Reel Prod.   Action/Sports
        Striker '95          1-2    Time-Warner    Rage           Action/Sports
        Swagman               1       ?            Core Design    Adventure
        Thunderhawk           1       ?            Core Design    Action/Shooter
        Tomb Raider           1       ?            Core Design    Action/Adventure
        Varuna's Forces       1     Atari          Accent Media   Action/Adventure
        Virtuoso              1     Telegames      Williams Br.   Action
        Wayne Gretzky NHL    1-2    Time-Warner    Time-Warner    Sports
        Wing Commander III    1       ?            Elec. Arts     Action/Strategy

        Announced Jaguar Virtual Reality Headset games:

        Title              Players  Publisher      Developer      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------   --------------
        Gravon                1       ?            Suma           Action/Sim.
        Zone Hunter           1     Atari          Virtuality     Action


     Q. Where can I get a review and/or comments about <insert game name here>?
     A: Robert A. Jung ( has reviews of some Jaguar games and
        peripherals.  They are available on the world-wide web at his web site,

     Q. Where can I find secrets, tips, and hints for <insert game name here>?
     A. A comprehensive list of Jaguar cheats and codes is available from "The
        Mage," at or

        Clay Halliwell maintains the Atari Jaguar Cheats and Codes FAQ, which he
        updates regularly.  It can be found on the world-wide web at

     Q. Is there a Jaguar emulator available?
     A. No Jaguar emulators currently exist, and it is the opinion of some Jaguar
        developers that the system architecture is too complex to be emulated by a
        current desktop computer using a Pentium or PowerPC processor.  On the
        other hand, "RealityMan" (developer of the UltraHLE Nintendo64 emulator
        for Windows 95) is reported to be working on a Jaguar emulator.  For news
        updates, visit
     Q. Some of my Jaguar games don't have overlays for the keypads.  Where can I
        get them?
     A. Not all Jaguar games used overlays for the keypad; some titles didn't use
        the keypad at all, while others used the keypad, but the developers did
        not feel that an overlay was needed.  Making your own keypads is certainly
        possible; simply use an existing keypad for a template, draw whatever
        designs you like, then cut and to fit.
        Tony Price has made a number of overlays for Jaguar games that didn't
        include them, as well as dust covers for the keypads.  He can be reached
        by mail at, or on the world-wide web at
     Q. What Jaguar peripherals are available?
     A: The following Jaguar-related peripherals were released.  Availability will
        vary according to source:

        * Atari Corp.
          1196 Borregas Avenue
          Sunnyvale, CA  94089-1302
          Phone: (800) GO-ATARI  (800-462-8274)  9:00am to 5:00pm PST, M-F

          - CD-ROM PLAYER.  Attaches to the top of the Jaguar console.  Allows the
            Jaguar to play Jaguar CD games.  See the dedicated entry for details.

          - COMPOSITE VIDEO CABLE.  Attaches to the Jaguar expansion port to
            provide a clearer/sharper picture.

          - JAG LINK.  Networking peripheral.  Allows two Jaguars to be connected
            for networked games, up to 100 feet apart.

          - MEMORY TRACK.  Peripheral.  Plugs into the cartridge slot of the
            CD-ROM drive.  Allows Jaguar CD games to be saved for later play.
            Holds up to 128K of data.

          - PRO CONTROLLER.  Game controller.  Provides more action buttons to
            be used in games.  Adds three more "fire" buttons (X, Y, Z, which
            correspond to 7, 8, 9 on the numeric keypad) and two index-finger
            buttons (L and R, which correspond to 4 and 6).  Some games were
            designed/optimized for the Pro Controller (PRIMAL RAGE, HIGHLANDER,
            SUPER BURNOUT, ATARI KARTS, and BATTLEMORPH are the most notable
            ones); other titles, while not specifically written for the Pro
            Controller, are easier to play with the easier access to the keypad.

          - S-VIDEO CABLE.  Attaches to the Jaguar expansion port to provide a
            clearer picture.

          - TEAM TAP.  Controller port expansion.  Allows up to four Jaguar
            controllers to be attached to a single controller port.  With two Team
            Tap adaptors, eight players can play simultaneously on one Jaguar.
            Was sold with the game WHITE MEN CAN'T JUMP and also available

          - TEMPEST 2000: THE SOUNDTRACK.  Audio CD.  Contains twelve tracks of
            "techno-rave" rock music by Imagitec Design Inc.  Tracks are either
            remixes or inspired by the soundtrack from the Jaguar game TEMPEST

        * Ben Aein

          (301) 251-0997

          - LAPCAT.  Joystick controller.  Lap/table-sized joystick controller.
            12" x 11.5" x 3".  Arcade-quality build, with steel joystick shaft
            and reed contact buttons.  Six large fire buttons are provided, and
            all Jaguar controller keys are available.  Available in left-handed or
            right-handed models (fire buttons on the side of the hand).  A "Lapcat
            Pro" is also available.  Write to Ben for pricing details.

        * Dark Knight Games

            These are rotary controllers to be used for playing TEMPEST 2000.
            The "Extreme Rotary" controller includes three fire buttons, a numeric
            keypad, and a TEMPEST 2000 keypad overlay.  The "Extreme Rotary Pro"
            controller differs by having six fire buttons (corresponding to
            Atari's Pro Controller layout) and a joystick.  Price is $80 US for
            the Extreme Rotary and $99 US for the Extreme Rotary Pro.  Send e-mail
            to "" to order.

          - JOYSTICK UPGRADE KIT.  Game controller enhancement.  This kit allows
            you to permanetly attach a joystick to the joypad of a standard Jaguar

        * Demand Systems
          Phone: (805) 482-7900

          - PRO-STICK.  Joystick controller.  An arcade-quality joystick and
            buttons, mounted on a large base.  Suitable for lap or tabletop use.
            A Jaguar controller is attached to allow use of the keypad and other

        * GOAT (Games of All Types) Store
          - JAGUAR JAMMA JOYSTICK.  Joystick controller.  Arcade-quality joystick
            for the Jaguar made with authentic arcade JAMMA components.  Available
            in regular and LX configurations.

        * ICD, Inc.
          1220 Rock Street
          Rockford, IL  61101
          Phone: (815) 968-2228, extension 222
          FAX: (815) 968-6888
          GEnie e-mail: ICDINC
          CompuServe e-mail: 76004,1600
          Internet e-mail:

          - CATBOX.  Output/Networking adaptor.  Attaches to the rear of the
            Jaguar, and provides a variety of industry-standard output ports:

              > S-Video, RGB, and composite video
              > Left/right channel RCA jacks
              > Two 1/8th inch stereo headphone jacks (with volume control)
              > Pass-through Jaguar DSP bus
              > RS-232 (modem) port and "CatNet" networking

            The CatNet is a differential pair network that is formed by connected
            multiple Jaguars/CatBoxes with RJ-11 telephone wiring.  Up to 32 units
            can be connected, up to 1,000 feet apart.  Price is $69.95.

          - CATBOX ACCESSORIES.  ICD sells video, audio, and networking adaptors
            and cables for use with the CatBox if you cannot find them locally.
            ICD can also custom-manufacture RGB adaptors to suit most computer
            monitors, per buyer specifications.  Contact ICD Inc. for individual
            prices and details.

        * Sandwich Islands Publishing
          P.O. Box 10669
          Lahaina, HI  96761
          Phone: (808) 661-2715

          - JAGUAR GAMER'S GUIDE.  Game tips book.  Provides codes, tips, maps,
            and solutions for almost 20 Jaguar games.  ISBN is 1-884364-13-6.
            Can be reached at, or send e-mail to

        * Songbird Productions
          1736 Chippewa Drive NW
          Rochester, MN 55901
          - RAPID FIRE CONTROLLER.  Game controller.  This is a standard Jaguar
            joypad modified to support automatic rapid fire on either the A or B
            buttons. Two rear-mounted pushbuttons toggle the rapid fire circuit,
            and two small LEDs mounted near the A and B buttons indicate whether
            rapid fire is active or not.  Rapid fire can be set to 5, 10, 15, or
            20 pulses per second.
          - J.J.J.  Game controller.  The J.J.J. is an arcade-quality joystick for
            the Jaguar made with authentic JAMMA components.  Manufactured by Team
            13, and sold through Songbird Productions.

        * Victor Maxx

          - CYBERMAXX 2.0.  Peripheral.  A "Virtual Reality" helmet that uses
            standard RCA video and audio inputs.  Existing games can be played
            with the helmet display for two-dimensional graphics, but full
            "virtual reality" games requires custom-written software (none exist
            at this time).  The helmet provides 62 degrees of vision and weighs
            one pound.  Includes three IBM PC Cybermaxx games and a VCR tape.

        * Virtual i-O

          - I-GLASSES.  Peripheral.  Shows video images on the lenses of the
            glasses, providing a very large display.  Accepts standard RCA video
            and audio inputs.  Weight is 8 ounces.  The "video" version accepts
            only RCA audio/video inputs, while the "PC" version also accepts SVGA
            input and supports head tracking.  [Ed. note -- ViO had a Jaguar in-
            house, and recommend the i-Glasses for DOOM and WOLFENSTEIN 3D.]

     Q. What Jaguar peripherals were announced?

     A. The following Jaguar-related peripherals were announced at one time or

        * Atari Corp.
          1196 Borregas Avenue
          Sunnyvale, CA  94089-1302
          Phone: (800) GO-ATARI  (800-462-8274)  9:00am to 5:00pm PST, M-F

          - VIRTUAL REALITY HEADSET.  Controller/Peripheral.  Allows playing of
            Jaguar virtual reality games, with head and controller tracking.  See
            dedicated entry for details.

          - VOICE MODEM.  Networking/Communications device.  Allows two players to
            play networked games over standard phone lines at 9600 baud.  A
            headset and microphone allows players to talk to each other during the
            game.  Call-waiting support will pause the game if an incoming call
            arrives, and the game can be continued after the call is complete.
            Project has been suspended indefinitely.

            In addition, rumors of a rotary controller continue to exist, even
            though no official announcement was ever made.  See the dedicated
            section below for details.

        * CSCN (Cybercon Systems Carsten Nipkow)
          - MULTIBOX.  Output/Networking adaptor.  Similar to ICD's Catbox, the
            Multibox was supposed to attach to the rear of the Jaguar and
            provide a variety of industry-standard output ports.  In addition,
            the Multibox was supposed to provide error-free networking by using
            error correcting hardware.
          - INFRA-RED JAGLINK.  A Jaguar linking system that allowed two Jaguars
            to communicate via infra-red broadcasting.
          - RADIO JAGLINK.  A Jaguar linking system that allowed two Jaguars to
            communicate via short-wave radio.  A distance of up to five kilometers
            was promised.

        * Sigma Designs

          - JAGUAR PC CARD.  Computer peripheral.  Sigma Designs is developing a
            card for IBM PCs and compatables that runs Jaguar CD software and acts
            as a ReelMagic MPEG card.  Last announced release date was December
            1994.  No price has been given.

        * Spacetec

          - SPACE PLAYER.  Game controller.  The Space Player is a controller that
            is reported to offer six degrees of movement (up/down, left/right, and
            in/out).  No further details are available at this time.

        * Thrustmaster

          - FLYING YOLK.  Game controller.  A four-directional flight controller
            for use with flying games.  No release date or price has been

          - STEERING WHEEL.  Game controller.  A two-directional controller and
            pedal for driving games.  No release date or price has been announced.

        * Time-Warner Cable

          - JAGUAR GAME CHANNEL.  Game service.  Time-Warner Cable's Full Service
            Network (FSN) plans to offer Jaguar games over television cable lines.
            The games are downloaded to the customer and played at home, and game
            instructions can be printed with additional equipment.  Details are
            available from local FSN service providers.


     Q. What's the information on the CD-ROM drive?

     A. A double-speed CD-ROM drive was available.  The CD drive has an access
        time of 210 milliseconds, and has a sustained data transfer rate of 352.8K
        per second.  The CD-ROM drive features a modified data bus interface for
        access to the Tom and Jerry chips almost directly, allowing for a higher
        throughput rate on sound and graphics.  Storage on a disc is approximately
        790 megabytes (6,320 megabits).  The CD-ROM drive plugs into the Jaguar's
        cartridge slot.  A pass-through cartridge slot allows cartridges to be
        used with the CD-ROM attached.  Separate memory cartridges allow Jaguar CD
        games to be saved for later play.

        The Jaguar CD format is a non-standard format that is not compatable with
        the ISO-9660 standard.  It uses audio-format sectors for data, which
        allows for 2352 bytes of useable space in each sector.  Unfortunately,
        this leaves no provision for error correction or file system management
        (though errors are detected by the CD drive hardware).  Each disc is
        copy-protected with encrypted data that is specially formatted to look
        like an error.  Attempts to copy a Jaguar CD will fail because it cannot
        read the encrypted data, which means the copy will not work.

        The Jaguar CD allows delivery of full-screen, full-motion video.  The
        CinePak video decompression system has been licensed from SuperMac
        Technologies.  It is a 7K routine in the GPU and can be included in any
        CD-ROM software that needs it, allowing full-screen video at 24 frames per
        second.  Movie quality pictures can then be overlaid on the screen with
        computer generated graphics if the game demands it.  Time-Warner has
        licensed a library of film clips from its movies to Atari.

        The Jaguar CD has "Virtual Light Machine" built in.  This program plays
        audio CDs and generate accompanying color and visual effects that react to
        the music and sounds.  The user can control and select effects with the
        Jaguar controller.  Regular audio CD playback features (volume control,
        track programming, etc.) are also available.

        The Jaguar CD can also display CD+Graphics discs.  Supplimental cartridges
        for Kodak PhotoCD and MPEG-1 (Motion Picture Experts Group) compression
        were considered.  The MPEG cartridge would reportedly include extra RAM
        for buffering and support the whitebook video format.

        The drive was being manufactured by Philips in the United States.  Its
        dimensions are 6.5" x 10.5" x 3.5", and it weighs 1 pound, 10 ounces.  The
        price was $150, and includes the TEMPEST 2000 soundtrack audio disc, a
        sampler for the CD game MYST, and two CD-ROM games: VID GRID and BLUE

     %  Atari also developed and patented (#5,607,356) a technology for the Jaugar
     %  CD called "GameFilm".  Essentally, GameFilm allowed different video clips
     %  to be mixed and matched in real-time, with seamless integration of video,
     %  subtitles and soundtracks.  The player would control the movie by making
     %  choices throughout the game, with multiple choices available at each point.
     %  The only known GameFilm title was "Caves of Fear", where the player was
     %  cast as a CIA agent on a mission in Uraguay to stop the development of a
     %  deadly new virus.  Though the game was neveer finished, its themes and
     %  situations (up to and including assassinations) would probably have earned
     %  it a Mature rating.


     Q. What's the information on the virtual reality headset?

     A. Atari Corp. and the Virtuality Group had signed a contract whereupon
        Virtuality would develop virtual reality hwardware and software for the
        Jaguar.  In return, Virtuality would get the rights to port Jaguar VR
        games to their Virtuality arcade consoles.

        Though announced, the Jaguar VR was never produced.  Unofficial reports
        conflict on whether the unit was cancelled, suspended, and/or reworked.
        Reasons given for the inaction ranged from Atari's needs to reassess their
        investments and focus on core business, to the high suggested retail price
        of the Jaguar VR headset, to Virtuality's problems in trying to create
        a mass-market headset that could track head movement fast enough to avoid
        motion sickness after a few minutes of play.

        As originally reported, the Jaguar VR package consisted of two components:

        (1) A lightweight headset (weighs less than one pound).  It can be
            adjusted for fit and works with or without glasses.  Game graphics are
            provided by a single 7", TFT active-matrix color LCD screen, with a
            resolution of 260 by 400 pixels and up to 65,000 colors.  Dual temple
            speakers provide sound, and a built-in microphone allows player
            communication in future networked games.  A custom optical system
            projects a binocular image to both eyes; it is aligned at infinity, so
            focus adjustment is not needed.  Two degrees of freedom (left/right
            and up/down) are available.  Field of view is 52 degrees horizontal by
            40 degrees vertical.

        (2) A tabletop-mounted tracking station.  The station senses the position
            of the controller and the headset with "V-Trak" infra-red tracking.
            The tracking speed is 250 Hz, with a lag time of 4 milliseconds, four
            times faster than Virtuality's arcade hardware.  The tracker has a
            range of approximately 100 degrees; multiple trackers can be daisy-
            chained together to provide a complete 360-degree tracking range, but
            most Jaguar VR games will not require a full 360 degrees.

        The Jaguar VR equipment was designed to be played while sitting down, so
        as to avoid injuries.  if a player moves out of the tracking station's
        range, a safety cutoff would have been triggered to suspend the game.

        Jaguar VR games would have been written for use with the regular
        controller, as well as a two-button "virtual gun" hand-held joystick.  The
        licensing agreement between Atari and Virtuality permitted authorized
        Jaguar third-party software developers to write their own VR titles.

        One product did come out of the Atari/Virtuality agrement.  MISSILE
        COMMAND 3D for the Jaguar provided virtual-reality type play, without the
        need for special equipment or controllers.  The game was later transported
        to Virtuality's arcade systems.

        Clint Thompson owns a working Jaguar VR headset prototype (one of two
        known to exist).  User reports, photos, screen pictures, and other related
        information is available on his web site,

     Q. What's the "Panther"?
     A. Quick history lesson: Sometime in the late 1980s, Atari Corp. was doing
        research and development on "next generation" video game consoles.  There
        were two systems, a 32-bit machine called the Panther, and a 64-bit
        machine called the Jaguar.  It is reported that work on the Jaguar was
        progressing better/faster than expected, so Atari abandoned the Panther to
        focus their energies on the Jaguar instead.  Supposedly, if both machines
        were fully developed, the Jaguar would have followed the Panther only two
        years later.

        Reports of development work on the Panther have been whispered since 1988;
        some people have erroneously mistaken those rumors to be about the Jaguar.

        The Panther reportedly was considered a "32-bit" machine by Atari, though
        for reasons unknown.  It featured three chips, consisting of a Motorola
        68000 running at 16Mhz, an object processor called the Panther, and an
        Ensoniq sound processor called Otis, featuring 32 sound channels.  The
        Panther could supposedly display 8,192 colors from a palette of 262,144
        colors, and could display 65,535 sprites of any size simultaneously.

        According to Jeff Minter, the Panther's sprite hardware was very similar
        to the object processor in the Jaguar, to the point where both had the
        same limitations.  Putting too many sprites on a single scan-line, for
        instance, would require too much time to draw the line and caused a
        "tearing" effect in the affected row.

        Stefan Walgenbach is the proud owner of a working Panther prototype.  He
        has a web page at devoted to all sorts of
        information on the Panther.

     Q. What's the "Jaguar II"?
     A. There's been a little confusion with this topic, since at least two
        separate machines have been called a "Jaguar II."  The first was to have
        been an integrated Jaguar/Jaguar CD-ROM unit.  That project has since been
        cancelled, making the point moot.

        The other Jaguar II was Atari's next video-game console.  Though rumors
        were passed, a final design was apparently never produced for even the
        prototype stage.  The following rumors were strongly suggested, however:
        * Main chipset (codename "Midsummer") developed by Motorola.
        * Fully backwards compatable with the existing Jaguar.  Would have been
            able to play all Jaguar games and use all Jaguar peripherals.
        * Processing speed "two to four times faster than the Sony PlayStation."
        * Full C/C++ development package available.

     Q. What's the information on the CoJag and CoJag games?
     A. To briefly recap, after the Jaguar was released, Time-Warner Interactive
        (now a subsidiary of WMS/Midway known as Atari Games) licensed the Jaguar
        architecture for use in arcade games.  These systems were called "CoJag"
        games, and consisted of a Jaguar chipset with additional memory, extra
        storage, and other architectural changes.
        Two CoJag games have been released:
        * Area 51: A light-gun shooting game for two players.  The Jaguar's 68000
          was replaced with a 68020 or SGI R3K, and ran at 25 MHz.  It was also
          equipped with a four megabytes of RAM and a one gigabyte hard drive.
        * Maximum Force: Another light-gun shooting game.  The 68000 was replaced
          with an SGI R3K, and came with six megabytes of RAM and a two gigabyte
          hard drive.
        While it was rumored that the TWI games "Primal Rage" and "T-Mek" were
        also CoJag games, this is false; developer Al Vernon has confirmed that
        those titles did not use any aspect of the Jaguar design or chipset.
        Finally, reports that he playtested a third CoJag
        game, "Freeze," that was never released.  Here's a slightly-edited version
        of his report:
          "I saw Freeze a couple weeks ago at a local arcade pinball/video
          game expo.  The game made it to field test but didn't do well, so
          Atari Games axed it early this year.
          "Freeze was a puzzle game, most closely related to Bust-A-Move or
          Super Puzzle Fighter II Turbo.  You controlled a character at the
          bottom of a rectangular grid, five wide and eight deep.  You had
          the following controls: move left, move right, throw, and special.
          You start with a fish in your hands; when you press 'throw,' you
          threw it into the grid, where it goes up until it hits something.
          Once your hands are empty, a fish launcher gives you another.
          "The goal is to get groupings of three or more similarly-colored
          fish to touch each other, at which point they disappear.  Holes
          are filled in by reverse gravity -- the fish fall up.  The game is
          over when your grid is full of fish or ice.
          "Here's where it gets original: when you get a group of fish to
          disappear, you "freeze" a couple of fish on your opponent's field,
          starting at the top and working down.  A frozen fish doesn't work
          for groupings; fish are unfrozen by making a group nearby.  Empty
          slots get frozen too (the ice is empty).
          "The 'special' button is for a special attack.  When you start the
          game, you pick a character, which also decides which special attack
          you get.  I didn't play that much of the game, so I don't know how
          the special works or when you get it.  You could play one or two
          players simultaneously.  One player meant playing against computer
          opponents, along with a bizarre story -- I usually played the
          monkey character, who was searching for an alarm clock so he
          wouldn't oversleep, and he asked his opponents for a clock.
          "The game was pretty fun, and the graphics were nice.  It had a
          look like Trog -- simple 3D, bright saturated colors.  It's a shame
          it didn't fare better in field test."

        Pictures of the Freeze prototype cabinet and game screen can be found at

     Q. Was there a difference in Jaguar games/units sold in different countries?
        Do I need to keep track of PAL and NTSC versions of a game?

     A. There is no difference in the Jaguar game software.  A properly-written
        Jaguar game detects PAL or NTSC at startup and changes the playfield size
        and game speeds accordingly.  A properly-written Jaguar game will run at
        the same speed on either machine.  There are no regional or national
        market lock-outs as there are for other game consoles.

        The Jaguar consoles themselves were configured differently, according to
        the country they were sold in.  The primary differences were in the video
        output format (NTSC or PAL) and the power adapters (110 volt or 220 volt).
        Due to the Jaguar's use of an external adapter, a step-down transformer is
        not needed.  A local PSU can be used so long as it matches these
              1. 9 volt direct current (DC)
              2. 1.2 amps
              3. Center pin negative
        The PSUs from old Sinclair computers and Sega Game Gears can be used with
        the Jaguar without problems.
        To use an American (NTSC) Jaguar in Europe, you will need a new power
        adapter and a SCART lead to supply the Jaguar's RGB signals to the TV.
        Some European TV sets might have also required changing the Jaguar display
        from a 60Hz frame rate to 50Hz.
        The 50Hz/60Hz frame rate is set by soldering pads on the bottom of the
        Jaguar PCB.  On an NTSC Jaguar, they're located on the bottom of the PCB
        near the controller ports.  The set labelled "R140" determines between
        50Hz and 60Hz.  Connect the two points for 50Hz, or leave them
        disconnected for 60Hz, as follows:

                  60Hz          50Hz
                   o-o   R135    o-o
                   o o   R136    o o   (Information courtesy of Martin Zimmer,
                   o o   R137    o o
                   o o   R140    o-o

        PAL Jaguars sold in Europe have the R140 pads connected with a zero ohm
        SMD resistor, which can be removed with a soldering iron.  It is possible
        to wire a switch to the points, allowing the Jaguar to be toggled between
        50Hz/60Hz.  This is mainly useful for PAL Jaguars to play games at the
        original speed and screen resolution of the NTSC version.

        Russ Juckes ( gives these instructions for
        finding the pads on a European/PAL Jaguar:

        "Hold the Jaguar PCB with the Joystick ports to the bottom.  On the
        underside of the board, near the joystick ports, and to the left of centre
        there are four links, the top and the bottom one bridged.  (Both with zero
        ohm resistors).  Above them there is another link, with a brown resistor.

        "The bottom link is the one that needs to be broken.  I used a penknife to
        scratch away the solder, and then a needle-nosed pair of pliers to break
        the resistor.

        "The links are *not* labelled in any way.  As another guide to make sure
        you are about to snip the correct link, they are placed directly
        underneath a chip (which is obviously on the top of the PCB!) so if you
        use a soldering iron, be careful!"

     Q. Hey!  My Jaguar makes a quiet hissing sound!  What's going on?  Is it
     A. Early Atari Jaguars had a rumored problem with the console hissing softly.
        Atari had cited several reasons for the hissing noise.  Some have said
        that the sound is from the RF generator.  The RF shield has holes in it
        (ostensibly to help air flow and keep the unit cool), and it is believed
        that the holes produce the noise.

        Others said the sounds are produced by coil L29 which is responsible for
        the proper voltage regulation to +10.0V, together with U38.  The coil's
        copper wire vibrates when the current through it changes abruptly, making
        the hiss.
        There are two solutions: 1) Use plastic spray or silicone rubber glue to
        fix the coil's wire. 2) Replace the original Jaguar power-supply with a
        variable power-source, using 7.5V DC instead of 9V DC (it is not certain
        whether the Jaguar CD will require 9V DC, which would make this "fix"
        unworkable with the CD drive).

        In any case, the "hissing" noise was not dangerous, but merely annoying.
        It was usually audible only if you put your ear next to the unit and
        listen closely, and is not interference in the audio output.  It is
        roughly analogous to the buzz made by electric clocks.

        Most later Jaguars did not have this problem, though a few rare cases have
        been noted.


     Q. My Jaguar comes up with a red screen instead of a game!  Is it broken?

     A. Most often, the "red screen" problem appears after the Jaguar logo has
        disappeared off the TV screen, and is caused by one of the following:

        1. Poor contact between the Jaguar and the cartridge (most likely).  Make
        sure that the cartridge is firmly seated in the cartridge slot, and that
        contacts are not dirty/dusty.

        2. Bent pins in the cartridge slot (rare).  This may be caused by rough
        edges on some cartridges.  The pins should be carefully straightened.

        3. Defective cartridge (rare).  If the red screen only appears with one
        cartridge but not others, the game may be defective.  Exchange it for

        If the Jaguar logo appears without problems, then the Jaguar is probably
        working fine, and it's only the data transfer between the unit and the
        cartridge that's causing the problem.

     Q. I've heard stories about the Jaguar version of DOOM having network errors
        when playing with two Jaguars linked together.  Are they real?  If so,
        what causes the problem, and can I avoid it?
     A. There is some truth to the reports -- when linking two Jaguars together
        for multiplayer DOOM games, network errors sometimes appear which
        interfere with the gameplay.  At worst, the game resets to the start of
        the current level, which can be annoying if you're in the middle of a
        heated Deathmatch firefight.
        The problem stems from several causes.  The networking code in DOOM was
        not thoroughly tested before release, because the game was finished before
        Atari settled on the final specifications for the JagLink cable (the cable
        came out almost a year after DOOM did).  As a result, this causes some
        problems due to integration differences.  On the other hand, some of the
        folks playing networked DOOM are using their own home-made link cables,
        which might not have enough shielding, which also causes errors.  There
        are reports that earlier Jaguar models are more susceptible to errors as
        well, but the evidence is inconclusive.
        Recommendations?  Set up your Jaguars in an area relatively clean of
        electromagnetic interference, make sure you are using a well-shielded
        cable, and cross your fingers.  And remember that, even with an
        occassional networking error, DOOM is still lots of fun with a friend
        (or foe).

     Q: What's the wiring schematic for the Jaguar controller?

     A: Uwe Roeger ( reverse-engineered the Jaguar
        controller port and dissected a Jaguar controller to provide the
        following circuit diagram:

        Padport 4  Padport 3  Padport 2  Padport 1
        (yellow)   (orange)   (red)      (brown)               74HC244
          |          |          |          |                   ______
          |          |          |          |         R1 4k7   |      |
          |          |          |          |          |       |      |  Padport 6
        Pause -------|----------|----------|----------+----- 2| -|)- |18- (blue)
          |          |          |          |                  |      |
          |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R2 4k7   |      |
          |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 10
         "A"--|<-+  "B"--|<-+  "C"--|<-+  Opt -|<-+---+----- 4| -|)- |16- (black)
          |          |          |          |                  |      |
          |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R3 4k7   |      |
          |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 11
        Right-|<-+  "1"--|<-+  "2"--|<-+  "3"--|<-+---+----- 6| -|)- |14- (grey)
          |          |          |          |                  |      |
          |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R4 4k7   |      |
          |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 12
        Left -|<-+  "4"--|<-+  "5"--|<-+  "6"--|<-+---+----- 8| -|)- |12- (
          |          |          |          |                  |      |
          |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R5 4k7   |      |
          |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 13
        Down -|<-+  "7"--|<-+  "8"--|<-+  "9"--|<-+---+-----11| -|)- |9-- (pink)
          |          |          |          |                  |      |
          |      +---|------+---|------+---|------+  R6 4k7   |      |
          |      |   |      |   |      |   |      |   |       |      |  Padport 14
         Up --|<-+  "*"--|<-+  "0"--|<-+  "#"--|<-+---+-----13| -|)- |7-- (white)

                   Padport 9: Ground (violet) -- Pin 1,10,15,17,19 on 74HC244
                   Padport 7: +5 VDC (green)  -- Pin 20 on 74HC244

        SYMBOL KEY
          --|<--   1N4148 Diode
            +      Wire connexion
          Rx 4k7   Standard resistor, 4700 Ohms, .25 Watts (all resistors are
                     pull-ups; i.e. tied to +5VDC on one end)

        Padport numbers correspond to those on a standard 15-pin SUB-D plug.  The
        colors of the wires may be different in other versions of the controller.


     Q. What's this about a rotary controller?  What games use it?  How do I make
        one for myself?

     A. TEMPEST 2000 has hidden in it an option for a rotary controller (at the
        "Game Options" menu, press Pause on both controllers to activate the
        "Controller Type").  No plans for an official Atari rotary controller were
        announced, but many TEMPEST fans have been trying to build such a
        controller, to give the game a feel that's close to its arcade original.

        Andy Light has written instructions for taking a Jaguar joypad and an
        Atari 2600 Driving Controller and building a rotary controller with the
        parts.  His instructions are condensed below.  READ THE INSTRUCTIONS
        THOROUGHLY BEFORE ASSEMBLY -- there are some areas that are left to the
        whim of the builder, and advance planning is highly recommended.

                                         * * *

        Parts needed: Atari Jaguar controller
                      Atari 2600 Driving Controller (NOT the paddles)
                      13 wires, preferably of separate colors
                      A board or box or shell to mount everything on/in
        1. Open the driving controller by removing the two underside screws.
        Inside is a top-like device or a grey box with three wires coming out of
        it.  This is the encoder.  Pull the driving controller's knob off the
        encoder's shaft, then remove the encoder by unscrewing the nut that holds
        it in place.  Disconnect the wires from the encoder.

        2. Open the Jaguar controller.  There are four screws on the bottom
        holding it together, behind the round rubber pads.  Inside the controller
        are two circuit boards connected by a ribbon of wires.  The bottom board
        is for the numeric keypad and is held by two screws.  Remove the screws
        and take out the keypad.

        3. Disconnect the wire ribbon from the keypad by melting the solder.
        CAREFUL!  This is delicate work -- get help if you need it.  Solder the
        thirteen wires where the ribbon connection was; do not confuse them.

        4. From the left side of the board (the side that says "P2"), I've
        numbered the wires as follows:
           1) Common         5) Button A       9) Button C      13) Down
           2) Right          6) Button B      10) Pause
           3) Option         7) Button B      11) Up
           4) Option         8) Button C      12) Left
        5. On the encoder, connect wire #1 to the center terminal, #2 to the right
        terminal, and #12 to the left terminal.  The rotary part of the controller
        is now finished.

        6. How to connect the other controls is up to you.  I'm using arcade
        buttons, a thumbpad, and a switch (to toggle joypad or rotary control)
        mounted in an Atari 5200 trak-ball controller case.  You can mount a
        joystick, extra buttons, or other features for your own controller.
        Buttons and empty control boxes are available at stores such as Radio

        Wiring for the other signals are as follows:
              Up       - wires #1 and #11       Button A - wires #1 and #5
              Down     - wires #1 and #13       Button B - wires #6 and #7
              Pause    - wires #1 and #10       Button C - wires #8 and #9
              Option   - wires #3 and #4
        Because wire #1 has multiple uses, you will either need to string it or
        split it for each destination.

        7. Reassemble and mount everything according to your design.  For better
        spin, you can glue lead fishing sinkers to the inside of the knob, and
        lubricate the shaft of the encoder with light oil or silicone lubricant.

        That's it!  Please forgive me for any mistakes in my grammer, terminology,
        spelling, etc.  If you encounter any problems, feel free to e-mail me at
        ALIGHT55@AOL.COM.  Good luck!


     Q. I want something better than RF output from my Jaguar.  What do I do?
     A. Atari had an S-Video cable and a Composite video cable available for use
        with the Jaguar.  See the "Peripherals" section for details.

        If you are willing to build your own, the schematics for the expansion
        port are as follows:

                  Pinouts for Jaguar Video Cable
             (view is looking at the rear of the Jaguar)
           01A 02A 03A 04A 05A 06A 07A 08A 09A 10A 11A 12A
           --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
           --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
           01B 02B 03B 04B 05B 06B 07B 08B 09B 10B 11B 12B

           01A - Left Audio           01B - Right Audio
           02A - Audio Ground         02B - Audio Ground
           04A - Chroma Ground        04B - Red
           05A - Blue                 05B - Composite Sync (can also be used
           06A - Horizontal Sync                            for vertical sync)
           07A - Green                07B - Luma Ground
           08A - Chroma               08B - Luma
                                      10B - Video Ground
           11A - +10V power supply    11B - Composite Video

                    S-Video Cable
           ##\                           /---(##- P2 RCA Male (Red)
           ###                          /
        P1 ###>>--(Shielded cable)-----<-----(##- P3 RCA Male (White)
           ###                          \                           ___
           ##/                           \---<##  P4 4 pin SVHS   3/. .\4
        Jaguar                                       Mini-DIN    1| . . |2
                                                     Plug Male     \_=_/ (front)
        Conn    Pin       Signal     Conn  Pin
         P2   Center   Right Audio    P1  01B
         P2   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02B
         P3   Center   Left Audio     P1  01A
         P3   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02A
         P4      1     Luma Ground    P1  07B
         P4      3     Luma           P1  08B
         P4      4     Chroma         P1  08A
         P4      2     Chroma Ground  P1  04A
         P4    Shell   Not Connected  P1  N/A

                    Composite Video Cable
           ##\                           /---(##- P2 RCA Male (Red)
           ###                          /
        P1 ###>>--(Shielded cable)-----<-----(##- P3 RCA Male (White)
           ###                          \
           ##/                           \---(##- P4 RCA Male (Yellow)

        Conn    Pin       Signal     Conn  Pin
         P2   Center   Right Audio    P1  01B
         P2   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02B
         P3   Center   Left Audio     P1  01A
         P3   Shell    Audio Ground   P1  02A
         P4   Center   Comp Video     P1  11B
         P4   Shell    Video Ground   P1  10B

        For Jaguar owners who wish to use SCART, a Jaguar-to-SCART RGB cable can
        be made as follows:

        SCART socket:
            20  18  16  14  12  10   8   6   4   2
        \   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   |
         \                                           |
          |   --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  -- |
              19  17  15  13  11   9   7   5   3   1

        RGB connection using an 8-pin shielded cable:

         SCART     Signal      Jaguar A/V port
            6    Left Audio         1A
            2    Right Audio        1B
            4    Audio Ground       2A
           15    Red                4B
            7    Blue               5A
           11    Green              7A
           16    H-Sync (Blank)     6A
           20    Composite Sync     5B
           17    Video Ground      10B  (connected by cable shield)

     Q. How did the ComLynx port on the Jaguar work?  Could I connect my Lynx to

     A. The Jaguar does not have a ComLynx port per se, but has a ComLynx signal
        on the system bus.  An expansion port add-on would have made the port
        available, and developers had announced plans for such accessories.  It is
        possible to daisy-chain multiple Jaguars for multiplayer games into a
        "Jaguar network".  In theory, it would have also been possible to connect
        Jaguars and Lynxes, though no plans for cross-system software were ever

        There was also talk that the Jaguar's ComLynx signal could allow Lynxes to
        be used as peripherals: software could have been developed to allow Lynxes
        to be part of a Jaguar game as "smart" controllers.  Again, no actual
        plans were ever announced.

        For enterprising engineers who wish to build a ComLynx cable for two
        Jaguars, the following schematics from are available.

                                         * * *

               12 Contact IDE Card Edge Connector (Atari Jaguar DSP Connector)

        View from the front of the connector (not the solder side):

                   Top                             Cable pinouts
             7  8  9 10 11 12              Jaguar 1            Jaguar 2
        L  +------------------+  R         2 (TX) ______  ______ 2 (Tx)
        e  | x  x  x  x  x  x |  i                      \/
        f  | x  x  x  x  x  x |  g         3 (RX) ______/\______ 3 (Rx)
        t  +------------------+  h         6 (Ground) __________ 6 (Ground)
             6  5  4  3  2  1    t
                     Key signals: 2 - Transmit, 3 - Receive, 6 - Ground

        Assembly Notes:
          As shown, the only 3 wires needed for the cable are 2, 3 and 6 (Tx, Rx,
          and Ground).  All of these wires are on the bottom connector, so that
          is a good indicater of which way the cable plugs in the Jaguar.
          Shielded and RF-Choked cables work best.  Due to the nature of this
          connector, it will be hard to shield this cable completely.

          If you cannot find a 12-contact IDE Card Edge Connector, a 10-contact
          version can be used.  A quick one can be built with no soldering using
          JDR MicroDevices (Part# IDE10).  This is made for ribbon cable, but you
          can use regular shielded cables with a little work.  As long as lines 2,
          3, and 6 remain properly connected, there should be no difference.

        Usage tips:
        * DO NOT PLUG THIS CABLE IN UPSIDE-DOWN!  You may damage internal
            components if you plug it incorrectly.
        * TURN OFF BOTH JAGUARS BEFORE CONNECTING.  You may damage internal
            components if you do not.
        * Since there isn't much strengh in the wires, remove the cable by the

     Q. Agh!  My Jaguar is broken!  How can I fix it?
     A. Unforutnately, with the dissolution of Atari Corp., repair or replacement
        of broken Jaguars is no longer available; Atari/JTS does not have any
        units remaining for sale or replacement.  On the other hand, with the low
        price of clearance Jaguars today, it isn't expensive to buy a new unit.
        In Great Britian, Telegames UK will offer to repair your Jaguar for a fee.
        They can be reached at:
                              Kilby Bridge, Wigston,
                              Leicester LE18 3TE, UK
                              Tel. +44-116-2880445
                              Fax. +44-116-2813437


     Q. Where can I get other information about the Jaguar?

     A. Publications:

        - Instant Replay                  Newsletter devoted to the Jaguar, with
          7570 South Manor Avenue         news and reviews.  Write to Frank Eva
          Oak Creek, WI 53154             for more information.

        - Wild Cat                        A one-man, home-made Atari video gaming
          Phil Patton                     "fanzine."  Subscvriptions are $12/year
          131 Dake Ave.                   for eight issues, at 12 pages each
          Santa Cruz, CA  95062           issue.  Covers all Atari consoles and

        Internet/USENET newsgroups and services:


            USENET newsgroup.  Contains news for all Atari video-game systems.

        - World-Wide Web Pages

            Go Atari is a web site that sells Atari software and hardware:

            Telegames UK sells Jaguar consoles, games, accessories:

            The Electric Escape is the official home of the Jaguar FAQ.

            Jaguar Explorer On-line is a free electronic newsletter covering the
            latest news on the Jaguar (and other Atari-related matters):
            Atarinews: On the Prowl is an electronic newsletter that reports the
            newest developments in the Atari gaming community:

            The Jaguar Community Webring is a collection of web sites devoted to
            all aspects of the Jaguar:

            Carl Forhan's (Songbird Productions) numerous Lynx and Jaguar
            projects can be found at:

            The Jaguar Development Club and Jaguar City have joined forces to
            create a German/English web site for developers and enthusiasts.

            The Atari Lynx and Jaguar Club Deutschland is on the web:

            General-purpose Atari/Jaguar Web pages:
            Also, Yahoo!'s list of Atari Jaguar web sites can be found at

            Llamasoft has a web page which contains updates on upcoming Jaguar
            projects, as well as ruminations on lovely llamas, hot music CDs, and
            other musings from Jeff Minter:

        Mailing list:
        - Atari Jag-mail
            J. Sinn runs a Jaguar e-mail newsletter.  For subscription
            information, write to


        - CATScan

            (209) 239-1552, 300/1200/2400/9600/14400 bps.  Single line.

            The BBS is completely dedicated to Atari products and Atari video game
            consoles.  Includes screen shots, press releases, pictures, and other
            files.  Run by Don Thomas of Atari Corp.

        - Video Game Information Service.

            (201) 509-7324, 300/1200/2400/9600/14400 bps. Multiple lines

            Located in West Orange, New Jersy (USA).  The BBS is completely
            dedicated to video gaming, and maintains files of cheats and reviews
            for all game systems.  Carries video-game-related conferences from
            other computer networks, including Fidonet, Worldnet, and Globalnet.

        On-line services:

        - America On-Line

            The PC Games/Video Games discussion group has areas devoted to the
            Atari Lynx and the Atari Jaguar consoles.  Use the keyword PC GAMES,
            then go to the Video Games discussion board.  From there, select Atari
            Discussion, then the console of your choice.

        - GEnie

            A dedicated/expanded Jaguar roundtable has been established.  Type
            M475;1 to reach it.  For assistance regarding the roundtable, send
            e-mail to JAGUAR$ on GEnie.

     Q. How was development for the Jaguar done?
     A. Jaguar game development environments existed for the Atari TT030 computer
        or an IBM PC/compatible.  Art development could be performed on any
        machine, whether a low-end Apple Macintosh or commercial rendering
        software such as SoftImage.  Wavefront's "GameWare" was the official 2D/3D
        graphics development system; Atari itself used GameWare for in-company
        development, and registered third-party Jaguar developers could buy
        GameWare licenses at special discount prices.

        Estimated price for a developer's package was $9,000 for the TT030 setup,
        and $7,500 for the PC/compatible platform.  The package included a Jaguar
        development unit, documentation, and development/debugging software.
        The Jaguar had modified boot firmware to run the development board (the
        "Alpine board"), and it had a cable coming out to provide signals to the
        Alpine board that are not normally present via the cartridge connector.

        CD-ROM developement packages (including the cartridge development kit)
        were ranged at about $8,000, and were upgradeable from the card-only kit.

        Software routines packaged with the system included a multi-channel
        polyphonic FM/Wavetable synth; JPEG decompression; video set-up; drawing
        primitives; 3D rendering with gourad shading, texture mapping, and camera
        manipulation.  GCC is the primary 68000 C compiler; support for other
        languages was not available from Atari, but developers were free to use
        whatever tools they may prefer.  The development toolkit ran under DOS,
        TOS, or Linux.  Work was proceeding on a Linux development system using
        the GNU tools.

        The centerpiece of the TT030 deveopment platform was DB, an assembly-
        language level debugging tool.  The Jaguar and the TT030 were connected
        with a parallel cable, and software could be debugged interactively
        without interfering with the Jaguar's screen display.  DB supported the
        use of scripts and aliases, which simplified the use of complex or common

        Support for the development packages was primarily provided by Brainstorm
        (Atari France), who worked closely with Atari Corp.

        Atari granted final code approval, but did not see the need to "censor"
        games.  Every game was given one man-month of compatibility and quality
        testing before it was approved.  Atari offered technical support via FAX,
        mail, electronic mail and voice.  Atari allowed developers to source their
        own cartridges, documentation and shells if desired.  Jaguar software is
        encrypted with a proprietary key, thus preventing unauthorized developers
        from releasing Jaguar software.

        Cross Products (SNASM) offered an alternative Jaguar Development system.
        It came with a multiwindowed debugger, assemblers, compilers, and SCSI
        support, for approximately $3,700.  The package allowed for full screen,
        source level debugging of multiple processors, in C or assembler.  This
        was software only for the IBM PC; the Jaguar development hardware (Alpine
        board, modified Jaguar, etc.) had to be purchased separately from Atari.

        Ambitious hobbists have started their own unendorsed Jaguar development
        efforts, with several "home-brewed" development systems and electronic
        documentation of the Jaguar's inner workings.  Several games have been
        written for play on the "Jaguar Server" development system (requires some
        hardware modification to an existing Jaguar, and an IBM PC or Atari ST
        Information about these efforts may be found on the web at the following
          - "Jaguar Server" Development system
          - "Behind Jaggi Lines" Development system
          - Jaguar Underground Mailing List
          - Gavin's Jaguar Hardware page

        In addition, the Jaguar Development Club of Germany has made the official
        Jaguar development manual available exclusively for downloading on their
        home page (

     Q. Where is the encryption key for Jaguar games?  Now that Hasbro has
        declared the Jaguar an "open system", the key should be available to the
        public, right?
     A. Wrong.  Even though Hasbro has officially declared the Jaguar to be an
        "open" system, they have not released the encryption code for Jaguar games
        because they do not know what (or where) it is.  Hasbro's declaration of
        openness on the Jaguar simply means that developers and hackers are free
        to use any means they can to develop and sell Jaguar games -- whether they
        do this by figuring out the encryption key, bypassing the Jaguar's startup
        checks, or using any other techniques, Hasbro's lawyers will not bother
        anyone along the way.
        As of this writing, the unofficial word in the Jaguar community is that
        the few people who DO have access to the Jaguar's encryption key are
        trying to make sure that they're "safe" -- that if they release the keys,
        they won't be prosecuted by some other company for some other reason.
        But all hope is not lost!  According to Scott LeGrand of 4Play, former
        Atari engineer Dave Staugas has mentioned that the Jaguar's startup
        encryption check has a "back door" in the software -- a safety measure to
        be used in case the "real" encryption key was lost.  Investigation in this
        direction is currently continuing, and the latest (unconfirmed) theory is
        that the encryption (and the back door) works as follows:
          1. A 512-bit key is applied to the memory data, and then a 32-bit
             checksum is used for validation.
          2. The bottom 8K or so of ROM memory is filled with a key generated from
             the cartridge data.  When a Jaguar boots, this 8K of data is combined
             with the ROM data to generate the 32-bit checksum.
          3. If the checksum is valid, the cartridge is allowed to run.
          4. The "back door" checksum value is: 03D0 DEAD (hex).  And yes, it IS a
             cheeky reference to the Jaguar's then-current competitor...
        More details about the Jaguar encryption process will be added as it
        becomes publically available.
     Q. Since the Jaguar encryption code is missing, does that mean there's no way
        for people to write their own Jaguar games?  Is the whole "open system"
        thing a crock?
     A: Not at all!  Hobbists and developers have been writing their own Jaguar
        games for a while now; the lack of an encryption key simply means they
        can't distribute the game to non-developers.
        But wait!  In response to this need comes JUGS, the Jaguar Unmodified Game
        Server.  JUGS is a computer hardware/software package that allows you to
        download Jaguar games from your personal computer to a Jaguar and then run
        them.  With dozens of homebrewed Jaguar programs in existence, this opens
        up a new source of software for the Jaguar enthusiast.
        To use JUGS, you need the following:
          * A copy of the game BattleSphere.
          * An IBM-compatible PC with a RS-232 communications port.
          * A JagLink interface.
        For more information about JUGS, ordering information, and available
        developer titles, visit