Summary: FAQs about the Atari Lynx hand-held video game system
     Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.Edu

     Archive-name: games/video-games/atari/lynx
     Posting-Frequency: monthly

      |||  ATARI Lynx "Frequently Asked Questions" File!  Updated: 10/1/2000
     / | \

             Created by Darius Vaskelis, who saw the need and filled it.
             Maintained by Robert Jung (


     This file is not maintained by, overseen by, endorsed, or otherwise
     associated with Atari Corp. or any of its subsidiaries.  It's just a
     collection of questions and answers, with a few news tidbits thrown in.

     This file is posted on a monthly basis to,, news.answers, and rec.answers around the first of the month.
     The latest version of this file is also available on the world-wide web at It is maintained by
     Robert Jung at on the Internet.  Send corrections, news,
     updates, comments, questions, or other stuff to that address.  All mail is

     Updates since the last publically posted FAQ have a percent sign (%) in the
     first column.

     Robert tries to get the latest news and information into this FAQ; however,
     he's only human, and might miss something important due to real-life demands.
     Feel free to send in news tidbits and announcements to for
     inclusion in this FAQ.


     Q. What was the Atari Lynx?

     A. The Lynx was the world's first hand-held color video game system.  Sold by
        Atari, the Lynx offered true multi-player competition, built-in 3D and
        distortion graphic effects, reversible controls, and fast arcade action.


     Q. What was included when you bought a Lynx?

     A. The Lynx was available in two packages:

        Originally, the Lynx "Deluxe Package" included the Lynx unit, a copy of
        the CALIFORNIA GAMES game card, a carrying case, a ComLynx cable, and an
        AC adaptor.  Later the adaptor was replaced with six AA Alkaline
        batteries.  The Lynx "Base Package" came with only the Lynx but no

        Near the end of the Lynx's retail life, some stores were selling a
        "maximum" Lynx package, consisting of the Lynx itself and four games.  It
        was primarily a clearance/liquidation move, and is no longer available.


     Q. What happened to Atari, anyway?

     A. The trials and tribulations of Atari could fill a small book (and, in
        fact, once did).  To summarize VERY briefly, the history of Atari is as

          1972   Atari Inc. founded by Nolan Bushnell from a $250 investment.
                   Pong arcade game becomes a smash sensation.
          1976   Atari Inc. sold by Bushnell to Warner Inc. for $28 million.
          1980   Atari Inc. posts record sales.  $2 billion profits annually.
                   Atari occupies 80 offices in Sunnyvale, CA.
          1983   Decline of video games and irresponsible spending by Atari Inc.
                   results in record losses ($536 million, up to $2 million
          1984   Warner divides Atari Inc.  Home division (Atari Corp.) is sold to
                   Jack Tramiel.
          1985   Atari Corp. releases Atari ST home computer.
          1989   Atari Corp. releases Atari Lynx, the world's first color
                   hand-held video game system.
          1993   Atari Corp. releases Atari Jaguar, the world's first 64-bit home
                   video game system (see the Atari Jaguar FAQ).
          1994   Atari Games becomes Time-Warner Interactive.
          1996   Time-Warner Interactive (Atari Games) sold to WMS.
          1996   Atari Corp. announces reverse merger with JTS Corporation.
          1996   Atari Corp. and JTS connsumate deal on July 31 1996.
          1998   Hasbro acquires the rights to Atari Corp.'s name and properties
          1999   Hasbro releases their rights to the Jaguar to the public; Atari
                   is reborn as their new home video game label.


     Q. What was the relationship between the Atari Lynx and Epyx?

     A. The Lynx was originally conceived by Epyx in 1987.  It was called the
        "Handy" at that time.  Two creators of the system, Dave Needle and R.J.
        Mical, were also members of the Amiga design team.  Atari bought the
        rights to the Lynx and to Epyx's library of titles, and the rest is
        history.  Epyx no longer has any connection with Atari or the Lynx.


     Q. What are the specifications of the Lynx?

     A. Physical dimensions:

            Size: 9.25" x 4.25" x 2" (10.75" x 4.25" x 1.5" for original Lynx)
          Screen: 3.5" diagonal (3.25" x 1.88" approx.)
         Speaker: 2" diameter

         Buttons: Two sets of fire buttons (A and B)
                  Two option buttons (OPTION 1 and OPTION 2)
                  Pause button
                  (OPTION 1 + Pause = Restarts the game
                   OPTION 2 + Pause = Flips the screen, which allows the Lynx
                   controls to be reversed)
                  Power on light (Not on original Lynx; indicates unit is on)
                  Power on button
                  Power off button
                  Backlight button (Not on original Lynx; turns off the screen,
                    but does not turn off the game.  This saves electricity use
                    when a game is paused)
          Joypad: Eight directional
        Controls: Volume
           Ports: Headphones (mini-DIN 3.5mm stereo; wired for mono on the
                    original Lynx)
                  ComLynx (multiple unit communications)
                  Power (9V DC, 1 A)
                  Game card slot
                  Battery holder (six AA)

       For the technically minded, the Lynx has two basic chips that form a
       cooperative set of co-processing subsystems that maximize the Lynx's
       performance by sharing the work of executing a game program.  These
       chips are called Mikey and Suzy.

       Mikey (16-bit custom CMOS chip running at 16MHz)
       - MOS 65C02 processor running at up to 4MHz (~3.6MHz average)
           8-bit CPU, 16-bit address space
       - Sound engine
            4 channel sound
            8-bit DAC for each channel
            (4 channels x 8-bits/channel = 32 bits commonly quoted)
            Atari reports the range is "100Hz to above the range of human
              hearing"; spectrum analysis shows the range may go as low as 32Hz.
            Stereo with panning (mono for original Lynx)
       - Video DMA driver for LCD display
           4096 color (12-bit) palette
           16 simultaneous colors (4 bits) from palette per scanline (more than 16
           colors can be displayed by changing palettes after each scanline)
       - System timers
       - Interrupt controller
       - UART (for ComLynx)
       - 512 bytes of bootstrap and game-card loading ROM

       Suzy (16-bit custom CMOS chip running at 16MHz)
       - Blitter (bit-map block transfer) unit
       - Graphics engine
           Hardware drawing support
           Unlimited number of high-speed sprites with collision detection
           Hardware high-speed sprite scaling, distortion, and tilting effects
           Hardware decoding of compressed sprite data
           Hardware clipping and multi-directional scrolling
           Variable frame rate (up to 75 frames/second)
           160 x 102 "triad" standard resolution (16,320 addressable pixels)
           (A triad is three LCD elements: red, green, and blue)
           Capability of 480 x 102 artificially high resolution
       - Math co-processor
           Hardware 16-bit multiply and divide (32-bit answer)
           Parallel processing of single multiply or divide instruction

        The Lynx contains 64K (half a megabit) of 120ns DRAM.  Game cards
        currently hold 128K (1 megabit) or 256K (2 megabits) of ROM, but there
        is a maximum capacity of up to 2 megabytes (16 megabits) on one game card.
        In theory, this limit can be exceeded, either with bank-switching
        hardware in the card, or by using a ROM power on/off line as an extra
        address line (up to 4 megabytes).  Most Lynx game cards are 256K ROMs.
        Three games are on 512K ROMs: NINJA GAIDEN 3, PIT FIGHTER, and JIMMY
        CONNORS TENNIS, along with the never-released EYE OF THE BEHOLDER.

        The first few hundred bytes of the game card is encrypted to prevent
        unauthorized developers from writing Lynx software.  This scheme was
        introduced by Epyx as an effort to enforce game quality.

        With alkaline batteries, the reasonable average battery life is 5 hours.
        (4 hours with the original Lynx)  The Lynx can run off rechargeable
        Ni-Cad batteries, but average battery life drops drastically to 1.5 hours
        per recharge (1 hour for the original Lynx).  Your mileage may vary.


     Q. What were the differences between the original Lynx ("Lynx Classic") and
        the later-model Lynx ("Lynx II")?

     A. The Lynx II is a bit smaller and lighter than the original Lynx.  It had a
        slightly longer battery life, and can also just turn the screen off during
        a game pause to save batteries.  (The original Lynx had a five minute
        auto-power shut-off that would have prevented this from being useful.  It
        was removed in the Lynx II).  A power LED was added (which also blinks
        when battery power is low), and cartridges are easier to insert.

        The only differences in a technical sense is that the Lynx II has a more
        efficient internal design, and the headphone jack supports stereo sound.
        The speaker in the Lynx II is also not as loud as the original Lynx,
        though it's more than adequate for all but the noisiest situations.

        Also, the Lynx II can experience what is called "blinking pixel syndrome".
        With certain game cards, one pixel on the screen (usually stationary)
        cycles through all the colors very quickly.  It does not affect game play,
        and isn't always noticed unless it's looked for.  It seems to be fixed in
        later Lynxes, making it even less of a factor.

        The power consumption in the Lynx II is about fifteen percent less than
        that of the original Lynx.  Harry Dodgson ( shows
        Classic using 343 mA, versus 296 mA for the Lynx II.  Also, about
        two-thirds of the Lynx power use is for the backlight screen alone, as
        using the Lynx II with the backlight off used only 97 mA.  He concludes,
        "the 'battery life of five hours' claim by Atari is realistic."


     Q. Is the Lynx an 8-bit or 16-bit system?

     A. If 16-bit refers to the main CPU (such as the Sega Genesis/MegaDrive),
        then the Lynx is an 8-bit system.  If 16-bit refers to the graphics engine
        (such as the NEC TurboDuo/PC-Engine), then the Lynx is a 16-bit system.


     Q. Why does the Lynx use a 6502 and not a 68000?

     A. "Some people believe it's less of a processor than the 68000, for example.
        That series of chip was used in the Amiga, but it wouldn't make our
        machine do things any better.  In fact, it would only make the unit larger
        and more expensive.  It's also harder to write 68000 code, so we
        definitely made the right decision."
                                                     --R.J. Mical

        "The real answer for the choice for the 6502 vs. 68000 was price.
        Secondary considerations (that did not really enter into the decision
        making process): 68000 code is very fat compared to 6502 code.  An
        application that takes 1K of 6502 code averages 2.5 to 3K of 68000 code.
        The 6502 is very bus-efficient, the 68000 has lots of dead time on the
        bus.  As for it being harder to write 68000 code, that is probably not
        true, and in any case was not part of the reason the decision was made."
                                                     --Stephen Landrum

        Additionally, inside sources at Atari said that one major reason for the
        6502 vs 68000 processor choice was that the 6502 design was available as a
        component that could be plugged into a custom chip design.  This allowed
        engineers to build a chip with a 6502 and other supporting hardware around
        it all in one package.  It was not until 1993-1994 that Motorola offered
        the 68000 as a design component.


     Q. What were all of the Lynx games released?

     A. The following is a list of Lynx games released in the United States.  The
        notation "(x)" means to refer to footnote number x.  All multiplayer games
        use the ComLynx cable unless otherwise indicated:

        Title              Players  Publisher      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ---------------------------
        A.P.B.                1     Atari          Arcade
        Awesome Golf         1-4    Atari          Sports
        Baseball Heroes      1-2    Atari          Sports
        Basketbrawl          1-2    Atari          Action/Sports
        Batman Returns        1     Atari          Action/Platform
        BattleWheels         1-6    Beyond Games   Action/Driving
        Battlezone 2000      1-4    Atari          Action/Arcade
        Bill & Ted's         1-2    Atari          Action/Adventure
          Excellent Adventure
        Block Out             1     Atari          Action/Strategy
        Blue Lightning        1     Atari          Action
        Bubble Trouble        1     Telegames      Action/Adventure
        California Games     1-4(1) Atari          Action/Sports
        Checkered Flag       1-6    Atari          Sports
        Chip's Challenge      1     Atari          Puzzle
        Crystal Mines II      1     Atari          Puzzle
        Crystal Mines II:     1     Songbird Prod. Puzzle
     %    Buried Treasure (Windows CD)
        Desert Strike         1     Telegames      Action/Strategy
        Dinolympics           1     Atari          Puzzle
        Dirty Larry:          1     Atari          Action
          Renegade Cop
        Double Dragon        1-2    Telegames      Arcade/Fighting
        Dracula the Undead    1     Atari          Adventure
        Electrocop            1     Atari          Action/Adventure
        European Soccer      1-2    Telegames      Sports
        Fat Bobby             1     Telegames      Action/Platform
        Fidelity Ultimate    1-2(2) Telegames      Strategy
          Chess Challenge
        Gates of Zendocon     1     Atari          Action/Shooter
        Gauntlet: The        1-4    Atari          Action/Adventure
          Third Encounter
        Gordo 106             1     Atari          Platform
        Hard Drivin'          1     Atari          Arcade/Driving
        Hockey               1-2    Atari          Sports
        Hydra                 1     Atari          Arcade
        Hyperdrome           1-4    Atari          Action/Sports
        Ishido: The Way of   1-n    Atari          Strategy
          the Stones          (2,3)
        Jimmy Connors Tennis 1-4    Atari          Sports
        Joust                1-2    Shadowsoft     Arcade
        Klax                  1     Atari          Arcade/Strategy
        Krazy Ace Minature   1-4(2) Telegames      Action
        Kung Food             1     Atari          Action/Fighting
        Lemmings              1     Atari          Strategy
        Lexis                 1     Songbird Prod. Puzzle
        Lynx Casino          1-2    Atari          Strategy
        Lynx Othello         1-2    Harry Dodgson  Strategy
        Malibu Bikini        1-4    Atari          Sports
        Ms. Pac-Man           1     Atari          Arcade
        NFL Football         1-2    Atari          Sports
        Ninja Gaiden          1     Atari          Arcade
        Ninja Gaiden III:     1     Atari          Action/Platform
           The Ancient Ship of Doom
        Pac-Land             1-2(2) Atari          Arcade
        Paperboy              1     Atari          Arcade
        Pinball Jam           1     Atari          Arcade/Action
        Pit-Fighter          1-2    Atari          Arcade/Fighting
        Ponx                 1-2(4) Songbird Prod. Arcade
        Power Factor          1     Atari          Action
        Qix                  1-2(2) Telegames      Arcade
        Raiden               1-2    Telegames      Arcade/Shooter
        Rampage              1-4    Atari          Arcade
        Rampart              1-2    Atari          Arcade/Strategy
        Remnant               1     Songbird Prod. Action/Arcade
        RoadBlasters          1     Atari          Arcade/Driving
        Robo-Squash          1-2    Atari          Action/Sports
        Robotron:2084         1     Shadowsoft     Arcade
        Rygar                 1     Atari          Arcade
        Scrapyard Dog         1     Atari          Platform
        SFX                   1     Songbird Prod. Developer tool
        Shadow of the Beast   1     Atari          Action/Strategy
        Shanghai             1-2    Atari          Strategy
        S.I.M.I.S.           1-2    B.Schick/Other Arcade/Action/Demo
        Sokomania             1     Markus Wuehl   Puzzle
        Steel Talons          1     Atari          Arcade
        S.T.U.N. Runner       1     Atari          Arcade
        Super Asteroids/      1     Atari          Arcade/Action
           Missile Command
        Super Off-Road       1-4    Telegames      Arcade/Driving
        Super Skweek         1-2    Atari          Action/Strategy
        Switchblade II        1     Atari          Platform
        T-Tris               1-8    B. Schick      Puzzle
        Todd's Adventures    1-8    Atari          Action/Adventure
          in Slime World
        Toki                  1     Atari          Platform
        Tournament           1-4    Atari          Arcade/Sports
          Cyberball 2072
        Turbo Sub            1-2(3) Atari          Action/Shooter
        Viking Child          1     Atari          Action/Adventure
        Warbirds             1-4    Atari          Action/Strategy
        World Class Soccer   1-2    Atari          Sports
        Xenophobe            1-4    Atari          Arcade
        Xybots               1-2    Atari          Arcade
        Zarlor Mercenary     1-4    Atari          Shooter

        (1) Manual says 1-2 players, 1-4 is possible
        (2) Multiple players on one Lynx, alternating turns.
        (3) Players can compare scores, but not interact directly
        (4) Multiple players on one Lynx.


     Q. What were the unreleased Lynx games?

     A: The following games were announced at one time or another as being planned
        for the Lynx.  With the dissolution of Atari, the chances are very slim
        that any of these games will ever be produced or released.  However, a few
        enterprising companies and individuals have considered plans to either
        finish their Lynx titles for release, to sell finished-but-unreleased
        games, or to produce new games on their own.

        Announced Lynx games (? = Uncertain entry):

        Title              Players  Publisher      Type
        -----------------  -------  ------------   ------------------------------
        720                   1     Atari          Arcade
        Aliens v. Predator    1?    Atari          Action
        Blood & Guts Hockey  1-2    Atari          Action/Sports
        Bleaker               1?    Dig. Thunder   Action/Adventure/RPG
        Blue Earth           1-2?   Dig. Thunder   Adventure/RPG
        Cabal                1-2    Atari          Arcade
        Centipede            1-2?   Shadowsoft     Arcade
        Championship Rally   1-2    Songbird Prod. Action/Sports
        Classics 2000         1?    Teflon Soft.   Arcade
        Cybervirus            1     Songbird Prod. Action
        Daemonsgate           1?    Atari          Adventure
        Defender/Stargate/    1?    Atari          Action/Arcade
           Defender II
        Demolition Derby     1-16   H. Dodgson     Action/Arcade
        Edward 2000           2     E. Castle      Action/Arcade
        Evergreen             1     JagSoft        ???
        Eye of the Beholder   1     Atari          Adventure
        Full Court Press     1-2    Atari          Sports
        GeoDuel              1-4    Atari          Action/Arcade
        Guardians: Storm     1-4    Teflon Soft.   Adventure
          Over Doria
        Heavyweight          1-2    Atari          Sports
        Iron Reign           1-5    Dig. Thunder   Strategy/Simulation
        Loopz                1-2    Atari          Puzzle
        Mechtiles            1-4    Songbird Prod. Action/Strategy
        Ninja Nerd            1?    Atari          Action
        Operation Desert      1     Atari          Strategy?
        Paralemmings          1     L. Simonis     Action/Arcade
        Planar Wars 3D       1-4    Songbird Prod. Action/Arcade
        Pounce                1?    Atari          Strategy
        Puzzler 2000          1     Markus Wuehl   Strategy
        R.C. Destruction     1-4    Telegames      Action
        R3K                   1     Team 13        Arcade
        Relief Pitcher       1-2    Atari          Arcade/Sports
        Road Fury             1?    Teflon Soft.   Driving
        Road Riot 4WD        1-2    Atari          Arcade/Action/Driving
        Rolling Thunder      1-2    Atari          Arcade
        Spacewar             1-2?   Atari?         Action
        The Furies            1?    Dig. Thunder   Action
        TNT Terry            1-4    L. Simonis     Action
        Ultra Star Raiders    1?    Atari          Action/Strategy
        Ultravore            1-2    Songbird Prod. Fighting
        Vindicators          1-2    Atari          Arcade
        Wolfenstein 3D        1     Teflon Soft.   Action
        Zow                   1?    H. Dodgson     Action/Strategy


     Q. Where can I get a review and/or comments about <insert game name here>?
     Q. Where can I find secrets, tips, and hints for <insert game name here>?

     A: Robert A. Jung ( has reviews for (almost) every Lynx game
        and peripheral available.  They are available on the world-wide web at his
        web site, at

        A collection of Lynx cheats and tricks is maintained by Peter Hvezda on
        the web at

     Q: Where can I get instructions for <insert game name here>?
     A: Bob Schwarzmann and Kurt Olsen have assembled a collection of Lynx game
        manuals.  Bob currently maintains the archive on the world-wide web at

     Q. What accessories are/were available for the Lynx?

     A. The following products were available from Atari Corp.:

        * ComLynx cable.  Connects multiple Lynxes together for multiplayer games.

        * AC adaptor.  Powers the Lynx from any AC wall socket.

        * Cigarette lighter adaptor.  Powers the Lynx from any automobile
            cigarette lighter.  Will support one or two Lynxes simultaneously.

        * Atari Lynx Sun Shield.  Folds down to protect the Lynx screen, and pops
            open to shade the Lynx screen from sunlight for outdoor play.  (NOTE:
            There are two models; you need the one appropriate for your Lynx)

        * D-cell battery pack.  Holds six D-cell batteries, and can be attached
            with a belt clip.  Alkaline batteries provides power for up to 20
            hours of playing.

        * Atari Lynx carrying pouch.  Holds a Lynx, several game cards, and a
            ComLynx cable.  Attaches with a wrist strap/belt loop.

        * Atari Lynx Kit Case.  Holds a Lynx, up to 24 game cards, and assorted
            accessories.  Padded interior with Velcro dividers, can be customized.
            Carried with a handle or a shoulder strap.

        Songbird Productions offers the following Lynx accessories:
        * Lynx/PC serial cable. Connects your Lynx to a 9-pin serial port. Used in
          Crystal Mines II: Buried Treasure, and used with S.I.M.I.S. to allow
          downloading RAM-based homebrewed games to your Lynx.
        * Lynx Game Wallet. Holds 9 games single-stacked, or 18 games
          double-stacked.  Made of Dupont Cordua water-resistant exterior,
          foam-backed soft headliner interior, 9 clear Vinyl pockets and a Velcro
          latch. Originally produced by Realm exclusively for the Atari Lynx.

        Naki Products also sold several Lynx accessories.

        * Atari Lynx power pack.  Mounts on the back of the Lynx II, comes with
            an AC adapter which allows recharging while playing.  Comes in 110v
            (USA), 220v (Europe), or 240v (UK) formats.  Cost is $39.95, or
            $33.95 for replacement battery packs.

        * Eliminator cleaning kit.  Cleans game cards and cartridge slots.  Comes
            with swabs and cleaning solution.  Cost is $7.95.

        * AC adaptor.  Powers the Lynx from any 110v outlet.  Cost is $9.99.

        * Car Power.  Cigarette lighter DC adaptor.  Cost is $7.95.

        * Pro Pouch+.  Holds a Lynx and up to 20 game cartridges.  Nylon with
            adjustable carrying straps.  Comes in Black, purple, or teal blue.
            Cost is $14.99 each.


     Q. Was there a TV tuner option for the Lynx?

     A. No.  Atari's official position was that market research showed that a TV
        tuner, while a neat idea, would not be bought by most players.  The
        unofficial word from Stephen Landrum is that the Lynx screen display is
        not capable of handling a broadcast television picture.


     Q. How do you get a Lynx screen shot, anyway?

     A. Atari had an experimental adaptor for the Lynx that allowed graphics to
        be shown on a conventional television set.  This was used to demonstrate
        Lynx games for corporate meetings, as well as providing videotape footage
        and screen grabs for the media.  Reportedly, only two or three of the
        adaptors were ever made, and each one cost $3,000 to manufacture.

        More enterprising players may get "screen shots" of Lynx games by running
        one of the Lynx emulators on a personal computer, then taking screen shots
        from there.  More information about Lynx emulators can be found elsewhere
        in this FAQ.

        In a show of ingenuity, Wizztronics plans to release a Lynx-to-TV
        converter for $199.95, and allows a Lynx screen image to be displayed on a
        television set.  The device requires a Lynx II, and must be installed in
        order to work.  More details will be provided when they are available.
        Wizztronics has a web site devoted to the converter, at


     Q. What can I use to carry my Lynx game cards?

     A. A cheap and easy solution is the plastic cases used to hold trading cards.
        They're transparent, sturdy, and lock shut when closed.  Most hobby and
        comic book stores will sell them; a large case costs $0.50 to $1.00, and
        can hold up to 14 Lynx cards.

        For Lynx owners who don't care about brand names, a Gameboy plastic
        cartridge case holds two Lynx cards easily.  The cases can be bought from
        Nintendo at 800-255-3700, part number 21648.


     Q. What does "ComLynx" mean, exactly?

     A. Some Lynx games allow multiple players to play together simultaneously.
        This works when each player has a Lynx game machine, and all of the
        machines are connected to each other via cables.  The connection is the
        ComLynx port, and the cables are ComLynx cables.  Games that support this
        mutiplayer simultaneous play are usually identified by the phrase "1 to N
        players Lynx up" on the box, the instruction manual, and/or the game card.


     Q. Do all players "Lynxed up" via the ComLynx need a copy of the game being

     A. Yes.  All players need a copy of the game card.  An early idea that Epyx
        had considered for the Lynx was to use magnetic tapes(!) instead of
        ROM cards, for lower costs and to support multiple players with one copy
        of the game (the idea was that you could load the game into the first
        Lynx, remove the tape, load it into the second Lynx, and so on).  This
        idea was abandoned because the Lynx's 64K of DRAM was insufficient to
        store a game, but not before spawning rumors that multi-player Lynx games
        only needed one copy of the title.

        Developer Harry Dodgson has invented the LGSS (Lynx Game Sharing System),
        which allows a game cartridge to use the ComLynx network to download
        copies of itself to other Lynx units.  This would allow multiple players
        to share one card.  The LGSS has already been implemented in "Lynx
        Othello," and Harry has plans to incorporate it in other games.  Interested
        developers should contact Harry Dodgson at


     Q. What's the ComLynx port like?

     A. There is a limit of 18 players via ComLynx.  In practice it may be
        possible to connect more units together, but to operate within
        specifications, the drivers in the Lynx cannot drive over more than 17
        units with pull-ups on the serial ports.  It's easier for the Lynx to
        manage fewer players, however, since each Lynx has to track all of the
        others, and having more players means more data must be exchanged (growth
        is exponential).  Also, tracking more than 8 players requires an extra
        byte to encode the Lynx unit number with each data packet.

        ComLynx runs from 300.5 to 62.5K baud.  It works on a "listen and send"
        structure.  Data transmission between Lynxes is done in the background,
        freeing up the CPU to run the game instead of communicating.  It's called
        "RedEye" in-house at Atari, named after an early idea of having Lynxes
        communicate with infra-red transmissions.

        It uses a three-wire cable (+5V/Ground/Data) and allows for bi-directional
        serial communications.  The system frames messages in terms of 11-bit
        words, each consisting of a start bit, eight data bits, a parity bit, and
        a stop bit.  The ComLynx port is used solely for communications; it can't
        be used to control other aspects of the Lynx, though in theory it can be
        used to send signals to external devices.


     Q. Sometimes a multiplayer ComLynx game will freeze up.  Why?

     A. A ComLynxed game will freeze if communication between the Lynxes is
        interrupted.  If communications can be restored, the game will continue.
        The most common cause of this problem is a fray in one of the ComLynx
        cables, or a loose seating in one of the ComLynx jacks.  Communication is
        broken, and the game "freezes".  Jiggling the cable or reseating the jacks
        may fix the solution temporarily, but the best cure is a new cable.


     Q. I hear there was a ComLynx port on the Atari Jaguar.  How did that work?
        Could I connect my Lynx to it?  Was there a Lynx adaptor for the Jaguar?

     A. The Jaguar does not have a ComLynx port per se, but has a ComLynx signal
        on the system bus.  An expansion port add-on would have made the port
        available, and developers had announced plans for such accessories.  It is
        possible to daisy-chain multiple Jaguars for multiplayer games into a
        "Jaguar network".  In theory, it would have also been possible to connect
        Jaguars and Lynxes, though no plans for cross-system software were ever

        There was also talk that the Jaguar's ComLynx signal could allow Lynxes to
        be used as peripherals: software could have been developed to allow Lynxes
        to be part of a Jaguar game as "smart" controllers.  Again, no actual
        plans were ever announced.

        An adaptor to allow the Jaguar to play Lynx games was never planned.


     Q. My Lynx screen is badly scratched!  How can I fix it, what can I do?

     A. Get some "plastic scratch remover" or "plexiglass scratch remover".  You
        can find it in hardware stores, or look in your Yellow Pages under


     Q. Agh! My Lynx is broken! How can I fix it?

     A. Unforutnately, with the dissolution of Atari Corp., repair of broken
        Lynxes is no longer available.  Replacement units are currently available
        from CWest for $45, until quantities run out.  CWest can be reached at
        (800) GO-ATARI.


     Q. How do I disassemble my Lynx II (assuming I want to)?

     A. The original Lynxes are easy to take apart, for whatever reason you
        needed.  The new Lynx IIs are more puzzling, but not impossible.  The
        following set of (edited) instructions are provided by Ken Small

                                         * * *

        "It's not hard, but there are a lot of fragile pieces and the electronics
        are sensitive to all the things that electronics are usually sensitive to,
        like static.  PROCEED AT YOUR OWN RISK.

        "First, remove the rubber pads from the bottom of the Lynx.  They're glued
        on, but they peel off pretty easily.  Beneath them are screw holes --
        remove them.  Note that it's *very* easy to tell if your lynx has been
        opened, since you leave holes in the glue stuff.  Take off the back of the

        "Remove the screw located inside the battery area.  Be careful when
        replacing this; it can strip easily.  Mine is stripped, but the rest of
        the case holds the battery bay in place.  Remove the battery bay piece.

        "You will see a circuit board with a couple of wires and circuit ribbons
        attached to it.  Carefully unplug all of these.  The ribbon in particular
        seems flimsy.  Do not puncture or otherwise damage it.  Remove the circuit

        "Beneath the circuit board is an assembly screwed to the inside of the
        case, which contains the screen, button contacts and buttons.  A warning
        when unscrewing this-- the are LOTS of small pieces in here, and they're
        particular about how they go back in.  In particular, be careful about the
        A/B buttons, which are slightly different sizes, and the rubber mat around
        the LCD screen, which has nothing to hold it in place.  (NOTE: Also, there
        are contacts on the circuit board hooked up to the high-voltage supply for
        the backlight. They won't do any damage, but can give a mild shock.)

        "The last thing is the joypad contact itself.  This is a small rubber mat
        held in place by a snap-on piece of plastic.  You can carefully remove the
        plastic to get under the apron, where the contacts can be cleaned.  Clean
        in-between the contacts, being careful not to abrase the contacts
        themselves.  They look like half-circles with a small (half-millimeter or
        less) space between.  Grunge between them can register an intermittent
        false contact, which looks to the player like the joypad is being quickly,
        repeatedly pressed in one direction."

     Q: Where can I get detailed technical information about the Lynx?
     A: A number of Lynx schematics are available on the world-wide web.  While it
        is uncertain at this time whether these documents are taken from official
        Atari developers' notes or handmade reverse-engineered blueprints, they
        can still offer a lot of information for the highly curious.
        Lynx Classic schematics are at

        Lynx 2 schematics are at:

        Lynx 2 repair information (in German) is at:

     Q. I have some dust under my Lynx screen; how can I clean it?
     A. The original Lynxes are easy to take apart; simply remove the screws,
        disassemble the Lynx, then wipe the screen clean.
        It is possible to disassemble the Lynx II and clean its screen in a
        similar way, but there is an easier alternative.  According to John
        Daniels, "The front screen on the Lynx 2 snaps on and off (easier to snap
        on than off though).  The transparent area and the area surrounding the
        small buttons near the screen is one big piece of plastic.  It snaps on
        with a lip on the top and bottom edge. ... It takes a pretty sturdy sharp
        edge, but once you start it moving, it just pops off and then you can
        clean the area between the plastic screen and the LCD."
        For cleaning, plain water or cleaning liquid will work fine.  It is
        recommended that you allow your screen to dry before reassembling the
        Lynx, to reduce the danger of damaging the electronics.

     Q. What's this about Lynx emulators?  Can I play Lynx games on my computer?

     A. Proving that old consoles never die, but get transposed on other platforms
        instead, a number of resourceful folks have written emulators of the Atari
        Lynx.  This is not as trivial as it sounds, as these authors are working
        without official Atari/Epyx documentation, and therefore spend a lot of
        time reverse-engineering the Lynx's processors.  They've reached varying
        degrees of success, but the field is a fast-changing one, and what might
        be insurmountable today could seem trivial tomorrow.

        Because these are software emulators, there is no current method to run
        Lynx cartridges directly off your home computer.  However, some folks have
        managed to secure ROM dumps of Lynx games, and the emulators can run those
        images instead.

        Here are some resources for further information about Lynx emulators:

        - BLL
          Homemade Lynx development system
          Bastian Schick (

        - Handy
          Lynx emulator for Windows 95/98/NT/2000
          Keith Wilkins (

        - Handy/MacOS
          Lynx emulator for Apple Macintosh/MacOS
          Richard Bannister

        - Metalynx
          Partially-completed emulator in assembly
          Ben Haynor (


     Q. What are other sources for Lynx information?

     A. Publications:

        - A.P.E. Newsletter               Dedicated Lynx newsletter ("A.P.E."
          2104 N. Kostner                 stands for "Atari Power
          Chicago, IL 60639               Entertainment").  Write to Clinton
          GEnie: C.SMITH89                Smith.  Published five times per
                                          year, cost is $6.00/year.

        - Portable Atari Gaming System    PAGS is a quarterly newsletter with
          P.O. Box 37692                  reviews, editorials, news & info,
          Raleigh, NC 27627-7692          and gaming tips.  One year costs
          GEnie: E.SCHOFIELD              $12.00.

        - Wild Cat                        A one-man, home-made Atari video gaming
          Phil Patton                     "fanzine."  Subscriptions are $12/year
          131 Dake Ave.                   for eight issues, at 12 pages each
          Santa Cruz, CA  95062           issue.  Covers all Atari consoles and

        Internet/USENET newsgroups and services:


            USENET newsgroup.  Contains news of all Atari video-game systems.

        - World-Wide Web Pages

            The Electric Escape is the official home of the Lynx FAQ.

            Go Atari is a web site that sells Atari software and hardware:

            Telegames UK sells Lynx units, games, accessories:

            Atarinews: On the Prowl is an electronic newsletter that reports the
            newest developments in the Atari gaming community:

            Harry Dodgson is developing several Lynx titles of his own, and also
            has rare screen shots, and a free demo ROM image for "Eye of the

            Bastian Schick has developed several Lynx titles of his own, and his
            Web site includes information for other Lynx developers:
            Laurens Simonis has started a web page on the development of his
            upcoming Lynx game, TNT Terry (a Bomberman clone):

            Carl Forhan's (Songbird Productions) numerous Lynx and Jaguar
            projects can be found at:

            JagSoft has a web page for their products at:

            Markus Wuehl has a web site for his Lynx game development efforts

            The Atari Lynx and Jaguar Club Deutschland is on the web:

            Digital Thunder is on the web:

            The Atari Lynx Generation 2 Game Deveopment project is located at

            Markus Wuehl has a web page covering various aspects of the Lynx,
            including his works-in-progress:

            General-purpose Atari/Lynx Web pages:

            Also, Yahoo!'s list of Atari Lynx web sites can be found at

        Internet FTP sites:

        - or (

                                Has back-issues of Portable Addiction, a
                                newsletter about the Atari Lynx, Sega Game
                                Gear, and Atari Portfolio.

            /atari/Lynx         Contains assorted Lynx-related files

        Microsoft Windows Help File:
            Jon Reinberg has compiled the Lynx cheats file and the Lynx FAQ into a
            Microsoft Windows .HLP (Help) file.  This allows Windows users to use
            active hypertext browsing to find game cheats for specific games.  The
            Lynx Help File can be retrieved with anonymous FTP, at
  , in the file atari\lynx\
            Instructions are included.


        - CATScan

            (209) 239-1552, baud rate/line information unknown

            The BBS is completely dedicated to Atari products and Atari video game

        - MADNIX BBS

            (608) 273-2657, 300/1200/2400 bps

            It's located in Madison, Wisconsin (USA) and has a Lynx section.
            Login as "bbs" and create an account.  Once on the BBS enter "go
            lynx".  MADNIX has game reviews and hints from the net as well as old
            message threads from UseNet on LYNX related topics.

        - Video Game Information Service.

            (201) 509-7324, 300/1200/2400/9600/14400 bps. Multiple lines

            Located in West Orange, New Jersy (USA).  The BBS is completely
            dedicated to video gaming, and maintains files of cheats and reviews
            for all game systems.  Carries video-game-related conferences from
            other computer networks, including Fidonet, Worldnet, and Globalnet.

        Online services:

        - America On-Line

            The PC Games/Video Games discussion group has areas devoted to the
            Atari Lynx and the Atari Jaguar consoles.  Use the keyword PC GAMES,
            then go to the Video Games discussion board.  From there, select Atari
            Discussion, then the console of your choice.

        - GEnie

            Atari ST Roundtable BBS, Category 36

        International clubs:

         - Netherlands: International Lynx Club
                        Leon Stolk
                        Vanenburg 2
                        7339 DN Ugchelen
                        The Netherlands

         - Austria:     Internationaler Lynx Club
                        Christian Lenikus
                        Obertraun 27
                        4831 Obertraun

         - Switzerland: Swiss-Lynx-Info-Club
                        Eugene Rodel
                        Sangeliweg 45
                        4900 Langenthal


     Q. What was the Lynx developer's kit like?

     A. Hardware:
        - Commodore Amiga computer: 3M RAM and hard disk.
        - "Howard" board: A parallel-interface module that has the electronics
          of the Lynx, also with debugging tools.  A large PC board inside of
          a metal case with power supply, and connections on the back for
          cable to connect to the Amiga, and to the "Howdy" unit ($5,000).
        - "Howdy" unit: Either a small PC board in a plastic case with buttons
          and a Lynx display, or a modified Lynx.  Essentally a self-contained
          "Handy" (Lynx) unit, with cables to allow the "Howard" board to monitor
          system behavior.
        - "Pinky/Mandy": A discounted "Howard" board setup that allows programs to
          be loaded and executed.  Pinky and Mandy can only download and execute
          programs that are in Handy RAM or a simulated Handy ROM cart.  Minimal
          debugging support ($500).

        - Handy-Bug: A powerful symbolic debugger, also contains a disassembler.
        - Handicraft: Graphics translator that takes IFF files and turns them
          into coded Lynx sprite definitions.
        - HSFX: Sound editor
        - "HandyROM": Creates ROM card images from code and data files.
        - Other assorted tools, including HandyAsm (a 65C02 assembler), a MIDI
          music editor, a paint program for creating/modifying sprites, a text
          editor, and HSPL (compiles music text files into Handy files).
        - Macro libraries
        - Example programs
        - Notebook of system documentation (approximately 270 double-sided pages,
          weighs over three pounds).

        The cost of a full Lynx Developer's Kit was around $5,000.